Obamacare Premiums Rise to Infinity and Beyond

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“Hold onto your wallets … many insurers want to substantially hike rates on Obamacare policies for 2016. Many are proposing double-digit premium increases for individual policies, with some companies looking to boost rates more than 60%,” click here

Low-Income Minority Communities Hardest Hit by Climate Regulations

USEPA Administrator McCarthy is certainly correct in saying that low-income minority people will be hardest hit by “climate change” regulations. But her claim about the cost being that of a gallon of milk is creative fiction. Just like Obamacare, costs will go down, right?

Excess Fluoride Intake from Drinking Water and Carotid Atherosclerosis

Hui Liu, Yanhui Gao, Liyan Sun, Mang Li, Bingyun Li, Dianjun Sun. Assessment of relationship on excess fluoride intake from drinking water and carotid atherosclerosis development in adults in fluoride endemic areas, China. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. Volume 217, Issues 2–3, March 2014, 413–420

Cross-sectional analysis was conducted to access the relationships between developing carotid artery atherosclerosis through consuming high fluoride in drinking water and its possible mechanism, using the baseline data collected from 585 study subjects. In the cross sectional analysis, subjects were divided into four groups based on the concentrations of fluoride in their drinking water. The range of fluoride concentrations was: normal group (less than 1.20 mg/L), mild group (1.21–2.00 mg/L), moderate group (2.01–3.00 mg/L), and high concentration group (more than 3.01 mg/L). The prevalence rate of carotid artery atherosclerosis in the subjects in each group was found to be 16.13%, 27.22%, 27.10%, and 29.69%, respectively. Significant difference between the prevalence of carotid artery atherosclerosis in the mild, moderate and high fluoride exposure group and in the normal group was observed (P < 0.05). In addition, it was found that elevated intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and reduced glutathione peroxidases (GPx) was associated with carotid artery atherosclerosis in fluoride endemic areas. The findings of the research study revealed a significant positive relationship between excess fluoride exposure from drinking water and prevalence of carotid artery atherosclerosis in adults living in fluoride endemic areas. The possible mechanism was the excess fluoride induced the decreasing level of GPx causing the systemic inflammation and endothelial activation by oxidative stress.

Global Cooling a Threat Until 2080

A prolonged cooling trend is much more of concern than any small amount of warming.

“Die Klimaentwicklung ist oft zyklisch, was für fast alle Zeitskalen bis zu einer Million Jahre gut bekannt ist. Am populärsten sind die drei Milankovitch-Zyklen [1], hauptverantwortlich für die Warm- und Eiszeiten der letzten 500 000 Jahre. Sie haben Periodendauern von Hunderttausend bis mehreren Zehntausend Jahren. Für die aktuelle Frage nach einem vermuteten Klimaeinfluss des anthropogenen CO2 sind dagegen Klimazyklen von weit geringeren Periodenlängen maßgebend.” Article is here

Fluoride and Uranium Removal by NF and RO

Junjie Shen, Andrea Schäfer. Removal of fluoride and uranium by nanofiltration and reverse osmosis: A review. Chemosphere. Volume 117, December 2014, 679–691

Inorganic contamination in drinking water, especially fluoride and uranium, has been recognized as a worldwide problem imposing a serious threat to human health. Among several treatment technologies applied for fluoride and uranium removal, nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) have been studied extensively and proven to offer satisfactory results with high selectivity. In this review, a comprehensive summary and critical analysis of previous NF and RO applications on fluoride and uranium removal is presented. Fluoride retention is generally governed by size exclusion and charge interaction, while uranium retention is strongly affected by the speciation of uranium and size exclusion usually plays a predominant role for all species. Adsorption on the membrane occurs as some uranium species interact with membrane functional groups. The influence of operating conditions (pressure, crossflow velocity), water quality (concentration, solution pH), solute–solute interactions, membrane characteristics and membrane fouling on fluoride and uranium retention is critically reviewed.

Adsorbents for Water Defluoridation

Litza Halla Velazquez-Jimenez, Esmeralda Vences-Alvarez, Jose Luis Flores-Arciniega, Horacio Flores-Zuñiga, Jose Rene Rangel-Mendez. Water defluoridation with special emphasis on adsorbents-containing metal oxides and/or hydroxides: A review. Separation and Purification Technology Volume 150, 17 August 2015, 292–307

Fluoride contamination in drinking water has been recognized as one of the major worldwide problems since this represents a serious threat to human health. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the guideline value (maximum permissible limit) of 1.5 mg L1 for fluoride in drinking water. Unfortunately, many countries have high fluoride concentrations (up to 30 mg L1) in water supplies that may cause widespread fluorosis and skeletal illnesses among the population. Many methods have been developed for fluoride removal from water including adsorption, ion exchange, electrodialysis and precipitation. Nevertheless, more efficient and cost-effective processes and materials are needed to comply with the fluoride maximum permissible limit. Adsorption has been widely used because it is the most cost-effective methodology for the removal of ionic contaminants from aqueous solutions. Various adsorbent materials have been used to remove fluoride from water, for instance activated alumina, activated carbon, bone char, minerals, among others, but unfortunately their chemical stability and/or selectivity and adsorption capacity is something that still has to improve substantially. During the last decade, metal oxyhydroxides in powder form and supported on different matrixes have been of great interest for fluoride removal. This review condenses the advances on this last topic that is still under study.

Cyanobacterial Toxins in Dialysate

Hilborn ED, Ward RA. The Risk of Cyanobacterial Toxins in Dialysate: What Do We Know? Seminars in Dialysis. 2015 Aug 19. doi: 10.1111/sdi.12420.

Surface waters are increasingly contaminated by cyanobacteria, which may produce potent cyanotoxins harmful to animals and humans. Hemodialysis patients are at high risk of injury from waterborne contaminants in the water used to prepare dialysate. Episodes of acute illness and death among hemodialysis patients have been reported following exposure to dialysate prepared from drinking water contaminated with elevated concentrations of cyanotoxins. Protecting dialysis patients from these toxins is complicated by a lack of monitoring and regulation of cyanotoxins in drinking water, uncertainty as to their safe levels in dialysate, and incomplete knowledge of how well current dialysate preparation and water treatment practices remove them. Until these issues are adequately addressed, hemodialysis centers should be aware of the potential for cyanotoxins to be present in their potable water supply, particularly when it comes from surface water sources prone to cyanobacterial blooms.