For science to progress in any field certain dynamics are necessary. First, productive and spirited discussions are needed between scientists with different points of view. If only one point of view is allowed as a result of political maneuvering and exclusion then the resulting conclusions will be skewed.
Second, a distinction must be made between observable evidence and the philosophy, metaphysics, or underlying presumptions of those involved in the discussion. Presumptions will drive certain conclusions. This must be recognized and presumptions examined as well. If presumptions are unreliable or arbitrary then any conclusions drawn are also arbitrary and therefore not very useful.
(In the climate discussions to date some scientists only want to tell us what they think and believe and advocate what should be done, but they are not willing to examine the epistemology or underlying basis for those thoughts and beliefs. Are the presumptions and assumptions made justified and reliable?)
Lastly, there must be an exchange of ideas with a goal of understanding and examining viewpoints that differ with mutual respect between the people participating. For example, some scientists believe in God and believe the Bible (like Galileo, Kepler, and many others) and some scientists do not. Having no belief in God is no more a guarantee of scientific credibility and orthodoxy than is having such a belief. A meaningful exchange of ideas between such parties is beneficial and necessary for science to progress.
From the information now emerging it is apparent that none of the above three dynamics occurred during the preparation of the pontifical academies joint declaration (i.e., click here)
Certainly, it is become more apparent that the Vatican should have allowed participation and consideration of other perspectives (e.g. click here).
Maghsoudi E, Prévost M, Vo Duy S, Sauvé S, Dorner S. Adsorption characteristics of multiple microcystins and cylindrospermopsin on sediment: Implications for toxin monitoring and drinking water treatment. Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology. 2015 Jun 16. pii: S0041-0101(15)00154-3. doi: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2015.06.007.
Adsorption of mixtures of cyanotoxins onto sediment as a dominant mechanism in the elimination of cyanotoxins from the aqueous phase has not been extensively investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate adsorption and desorption behavior of six microcystins including microcystin (MC)-LR, RR, YR, LY, LW and LF and cylindrospermopsin (CYN) on natural sediment. Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms could be fitted for MC-LR, RR, YR and CYN. Sorption kinetics showed immediate rapid adsorption for all cyanotoxins: CYN, MCLW and MCLF were adsorbed 72.6%, 56.7% and 55.3% respectively within 2 h. Results of desorption experiments demonstrated that less than 9% of cyanotoxins desorbed from sediment within 96 h. Adsorption of cyanotoxins onto three fractionated sediments particles, clay-silt (<75 μm), find sand (75-315 μm) and coarse sand (315-2000 μm) demonstrated that adsorption capacity of coarse sand fraction for all the tested cyanotoxins was less than 4% of the clay-silt fraction. Results of this study revealed that there is a potential for cyanotoxins to accumulate in the sediments of lakes, as well as in drinking water treatment plants. Monitoring programs must consider cyanotoxins in the particulate phase to avoid largely underestimating toxin concentrations following their release from blooms.
The recent decision by the Supreme Court affirming and essentially legitimizing homosexual behavior as “marriage” is a nonsense decision. Such behavior has nothing to do with marriage as created, defined, and intended by the God of the Bible. To mock God in this way is to invite severe consequences upon themselves and upon the country should such an attitude ultimately prevail. I am simply a messenger here. We stand firm for the common good and for the sake of the country.
Keep in mind that each person is a generator of man-made or woman-made CO2.
Enault J, Robert S, Schlosser O, de Thé C, Loret JF. Drinking water, diet, indoor air: Comparison of the contribution to environmental micropollutants exposure. International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health. 2015 Jun 8. pii: S1438-4639(15)00080-2. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2015.06.001.
This study collated 254,441 analytical results from drinking water quality monitoring in order to compare levels of exposure of the French adult population from drinking water with that from total diet for 37 pesticides, 11 mineral elements, 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), 6 non dioxin-like polychlorobiphenyls (NDL PCB), 5 ether polybromodiphenyl ethers (BDE), 2 perfluorinated compounds. It also compares levels of exposure from drinking water with that from inhalation of indoor air for 9 volatile organic compounds (VOC) and 3 phthalates. The vast majority of the water analysis results showed values below the limits of quantification and this comparison was primarily made on the basis of a highly pessimistic scenario consisting in considering the data below the limits of quantification as being equal to the limits of quantification. With this conservative scenario, it can be seen that tap water makes a minor but potentially non-negligible contribution for a few micropollutants, by comparison with diet and air. It also shows that exposure through drinking water remains below the toxicity reference values for these substances. Apart from a few extreme values reflecting exceptional local situations, the concentrations measured for the minority of positive samples (below the 95th percentile value) suggest a very low risk for human health. Lower limits of quantification would however be of use in better estimating the safety margin with regard to the toxicity reference values, in particular for BDE, PAH and NDL PCB.
David Otto Schwake, Absar Alum, Morteza Abbaszadegan. Impact of Environmental Factors on Legionella Populations in Drinking Water. Pathogens 2015, 4(2), 269-282; doi:10.3390/pathogens4020269
To examine the impact of environmental factors on Legionella in drinking water distribution systems, the growth and survival of Legionella under various conditions was studied. When incubated in tap water at 4 °C, 25 °C, and 32 °C, L. pneumophila survival trends varied amongst the temperatures, with the stable populations maintained for months at 25 °C and 32 °C demonstrating that survival is possible at these temperatures for extended periods in oligotrophic conditions. After inoculating coupons of PVC, copper, brass, and cast iron, L. pneumophila colonized biofilms formed on each within days to a similar extent, with the exception of cast iron, which contained 1-log less Legionella after 90 days. L. pneumophila spiked in a model drinking water distribution system colonized the system within days. Chlorination of the system had a greater effect on biofilm-associated Legionella concentrations, with populations returning to pre-chlorination levels within six weeks. Biofilms sampled from drinking water meters collected from two areas within central Arizona were analyzed via PCR for the presence of Legionella. Occurrence in only one area indicates that environmental differences in water distribution systems may have an impact on the survival of Legionella. These results document the impact of different environmental conditions on the survival of Legionella in water.
Liao X, Liu J, Yang M, Ma H, Yuan B, Huang CH. Evaluation of disinfection by-product formation potential (DBPFP) during chlorination of two algae species – Blue-green Microcystis aeruginosa and diatom Cyclotella meneghiniana. The Science of the Total Environment. 2015 Jun 19;532:540-547. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.06.038.
Microcystis aeruginosa (blue-green alga) commonly blooms in summer and Cyclotella meneghiniana (diatom) outbreaks in fall in the reservoirs that serve as drinking water sources in Southeast China. Herein, an evaluation of disinfection by-product formation potential (DBPFP) from them during chlorination should be conducted. Five DBPs including trichloromethane (TCM), trichloronitromethane (TCNM), dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN), 1,1-dichloropropanone (1,1-DCP) and 1,1,1-trichloropropanone (1,1,1-TCP) were monitored. The formation potential of TCM and TCNM was enhanced with the increase of reaction time and chlorine dosage, whereas that of DCAN, 1,1-DCP and 1,1,1-TCP increased first and then fell with continuing reaction time. M. aeruginosa showed higher DBPFP than C. meneghiniana, the yield of DBPs varied with components of algal cells. The DBPFP order from components of M. aeruginosa was cell suspension (CS)≈intracellular organic matter (IOM)>extracellular organic matter (EOM)>cell debris (CD), which indicated that IOM was the main DBP precursors for M. aeruginosa. The yields of DBPs from components of C. meneghiniana were in the order of CS>IOM≈CD≈EOM, suggesting that three components made similar contributions to the total DBP formation. The amount of IOM with higher DBPFP leaked from both algae species increased with the chlorine dosage, indicating that chlorine dosage should be considered carefully in the treatment of eutrophic water for less destroying of the cell integrity. Though fluorescence substances contained in both algae species varied significantly, the soluble microbial products (SMPs) and aromatic protein-like substances were the main cellular components that contributed to DBP formation for both algae.