Yet another paper demonstrating that climate models do not accurately represent the underlying physics of the troposphere

‘Climate models not only significantly over-predict observed warming in the tropical troposphere, but they represent it in a fundamentally different way than is observed’    Click here for the full discussion.

Untruths (aka lies) spread by the Union of Concerned Scientists on fracking

“Local officials in Erie, Colo., are pushing back hard against a national environmental group for misrepresenting the outcome of a failed “ban fracking” campaign in their town. The officials say the Massachusetts-based group has “ignored or misstated” the facts, including a number of scientific analyses posted on the town’s website, and they are demanding to know: “Why did you ignore this information?” ” click here

Government-funded dental programs cannot make up for lack of personal responsibility

Wyatt CC, Wang D, Aleksejuniene J. INCIDENCE OF DENTAL CARIES AMONG SUSCEPTIBLE COMMUNITY-DWELLING OLDER ADULTS USING FLUORIDE TOOTHPASTE: 2-YEAR FOLLOW-UP STUDY. J Can Dent Assoc. 2014 Jul;80:e44.

Objectives: To explore reasons for the underuse of dental services covered by a government-funded program in Alberta. Methods: In 2011, a survey questionnaire was sent to 4000 randomly selected clients of the Alberta Child Health Benefit and the Alberta Adult Health Benefit programs. Only respondents with children were included in the analysis. Reasons were explored among those who indicated that their children did not receive any dental services in the year before the survey. Difficulties faced by those who reported receiving at least 1 dental service were also noted.

Results: Among 795 respondents, 597 had at least 1 child. A total of 1303 children aged 1-19 years (mean age 11.79 years, standard deviation 4.2) were included in the analysis. Of these children, 443 (34.0%) had not received any covered dental services; the most common reason (50.7%) was no perceived need (interpreted from the replies “my child was too young” or “had no dental problems”) followed by perceived insufficient coverage (38.6%). The most common challenge reported by dental care users was also insufficient coverage (44.9%). About 57% of parents were aware that annual fluoride application was covered by the program; however, only 34.3% of their children received fluoride and 14.2% had sealants.

Conclusions: Low-income families underuse available dental benefits for children. Perceived need seems to be the primary determinant of use. Parental awareness about the coverage does not seem to promote the use of preventive measures for young children.

Microbial quality of Qingcaosha Reservoir, China

Huang Z, Xie B, Yuan Q, Xu W, Lu J. Microbial community study in newly established Qingcaosha Reservoir of Shanghai, China. Applied microbiology and biotechnology. 2014 Jul 22.

Qingcaosha Reservoir located at Yangtze Estuary of China is a newly constructed and one of the largest tidal reservoirs in the world, which will be an important drinking water source of Shanghai. This study aims at investigating microbial community and its shifts corresponding to different water quality during the test running period of Qingcaosha Reservoir. The results showed lower concentrations of total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) in the reservoir than that in Yangtze Estuary. The number of total cultivable bacteria was significantly lower in the reservoir than that of Yangtze Estuary. The denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis showed that the dominant microbes were α-Proteobacteria, β-Proteobacteria, Flavobacterium, Rheinheimera, Prochlorococcus, and Synechococcus. The quantitative PCR (q-PCR) results revealed significantly higher number of cyanobacteria and Microcystis in the reservoir during summer season. In addition, bacterial abundance positively correlated with TP concentration inside the reservoir. These results indicated that Qingcaosha Reservoir had ability to reduce the TN and TP in influent and improve the water quality overall. However, it also faced the risk of potential cyanobacteria bloom and eutrophication in Qingcaosha Reservoir where phosphorus will be the nutrient limiting factor.

Click here for full paper (fee).

Pew Poll reveals serious misinformation on climate, not “climate change” attitudes

Bullying is the only tactic remaining for those people who have closed their minds to understanding science and climate. Climate can always change and always is adjusting. It is a dynamic system. The mantra of “climate change” continues to be repeated in order to garner political support for $billions of government funding for programs that will not solve the problem.

“A new poll offers details on the way citizens of the world think about climate change, and U.S. participants are looking particularly ignorant to the risks of global warming. Only one in four Americans said climate change was a “major threat,” making the U.S. the least concerned nation.”

click here

Inactivation of human adenovirus with UV and free chlorine

Jung-Keun Lee and Gwy-Am Shin. Inactivation of human adenovirus by sequential disinfection with an alternative UV technology and free chlorine. Journal of Water and Health. 09.1. 2011

There has been growing concern over human exposure to adenoviruses through drinking water due to the extreme resistance of human adenoviruses to the traditional UV technology (low-pressure (LP) UV). As an effort to develop an effective treatment strategy against human adenoviruses in drinking water, we determined the effectiveness of sequential disinfection with an alternative UV technology (medium-pressure (MP) UV) and free chlorine. Human adenovirus 2 (Ad2) was irradiated with a low dose of MP UV irradiation (10 mJ/cm2) through UV collimated apparatus and then exposed to a low dose of free chlorine (0.17 mg/L) at pH 8 and 5 degC using a bench-scale chemical disinfection system. A significant inactivation (e.g. 4 log10) of Ad2 was achieved with the low doses of MP UV and free chlorine within a very short contact time (~1.5 min) although there was no apparent synergistic effect on Ad2 between MP UV and free chlorine. Overall, it is likely that the sequential disinfection with UV irradiation and free chlorine should control the contamination of drinking water by human adenoviruses within practical doses of UV and free chlorine typically used in drinking water treatment processes.

Click here for full paper (Open Access).

 

Drinking water monitoring costs in seven developing countries

Crocker J, Bartram J. Comparison and Cost Analysis of Drinking Water Quality Monitoring Requirements versus Practice in Seven Developing Countries. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2014 Jul 18;11(7):7333-7346.

Drinking water quality monitoring programs aim to support provision of safe drinking water by informing water quality management. Little evidence or guidance exists on best monitoring practices for low resource settings. Lack of financial, human, and technological resources reduce a country’s ability to monitor water supply. Monitoring activities were characterized in Cambodia, Colombia, India (three states), Jordan, Peru, South Africa, and Uganda according to water sector responsibilities, monitoring approaches, and marginal cost. The seven study countries were selected to represent a range of low resource settings. The focus was on monitoring of microbiological parameters, such as E. coli, coliforms, and H2S-producing microorganisms. Data collection involved qualitative and quantitative methods. Across seven study countries, few distinct approaches to monitoring were observed, and in all but one country all monitoring relied on fixed laboratories for sample analysis. Compliance with monitoring requirements was highest for operational monitoring of large water supplies in urban areas. Sample transport and labor for sample collection and analysis together constitute approximately 75% of marginal costs, which exclude capital costs. There is potential for substantive optimization of monitoring programs by considering field-based testing and by fundamentally reconsidering monitoring approaches for non-piped supplies. This is the first study to look quantitatively at water quality monitoring practices in multiple developing countries.

Click here for full paper (fee).