Recontamination of household packaged water, rural Cambodia

Emily J. Holman and Joe Brown. Safety of packaged water distribution limited by household recontamination in rural Cambodia. Journal of Water and Health Vol 12 No 2 pp 343–347. doi:10.2166/wh.2013.118

Packaged water treatment schemes represent a growing model for providing safer water in low-income settings, yet post-distribution recontamination of treated water may limit this approach. This study evaluates drinking water quality and household water handling practices in a floating village in Tonlé Sap Lake, Cambodia, through a pilot cross-sectional study of 108 households, approximately half of which used packaged water as the main household drinking water source. We hypothesized that households purchasing drinking water from local packaged water treatment plants would have microbiologically improved drinking water at the point of consumption. We found no meaningful difference in microbiological drinking water quality between households using packaged, treated water and those collecting water from other sources, including untreated surface water, however. Households’ water storage and handling practices and home hygiene may have contributed to recontamination of drinking water. Further measures to protect water quality at the point-of-use may be required even if water is treated and packaged in narrow-mouthed containers.

Click here for full paper (fee).

Homosexual “marraige” agenda continues cultural attack, decline

“Cynthia and Robert Gifford, owners of Liberty Ridge Farm in New York, used to rent out their farm so couples could get married on the grounds. They will no longer offer such services because the state ruled they had to violate their Christian beliefs and allow same-sex weddings on their property.” click here

A “Roadmap” Away from “Common Core” publishers

A Wisconsin homeschooling parent has developed a curriculum “Roadmap” to help fellow homeschoolers distinguish between those publishers who have chosen to align their instructional products with the Common Core standards and those who have not. click here

Rotavirus Diarrhea in Young Children, Urban Bangladesh

Sarker MH, Das SK, Ahmed S, Ferdous F, Das J, Farzana FD, Shahunja KM, Afrad MH, Malek MA, Chisti MJ, Bardhan PK, Hossain MI, Mamun AA, Faruque AS. Changing Characteristics of Rotavirus Diarrhea in Children Younger than Five Years in Urban Bangladesh. PLoS One. 2014 Aug 29;9(8):e105978. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0105978. eCollection 2014.

BACKGROUND: Childhood rotavirus diarrhea is still one of the major public health challenges. The present study aimed to determine changing characteristics of rotavirus diarrhea in under-5 children at two periods of time.

METHODS: We enrolled 5,357 under-5 children with rotavirus positive in two different time periods; i) 1993-1997 (n = 2,493), and ii) 2008-2012 (n = 2,864) considering beginning and ending of two decades. These children were enrolled in the urban Dhaka Hospital of icddr,b.

RESULTS: Overall, proportion of rotavirus was about 25% in 1993-97, which was 42% in 2008-12 (68% rise; p<0.001). Significant higher proportion of children were stunted [38% vs. 22%; aOR-1.33 (95% CI-1.09-1.62)], had vomiting [87% vs. 74%; aOR-2.58 (95% CI-2.02-3.28)], fever [10% vs. 8%; aOR-1.31 (95% CI-0.96-1.78)], family members >5 [38% vs. 35%; aOR-1.32 (95% CI-1.10-1.58)] required more intravenous fluid [9% vs. 3%; aOR-4.93 (95% CI-3.19-7.63)], had higher co-infection with Shigella [3% vs. 1%; aOR-3.36 (95% CI-1.61-7.03)], Vibrio cholerae [4% vs. 1%; aOR-3.70 (95% CI-2.12-6.46)]; and ETEC [13% vs. 7%; aOR-2.21 (95% CI-1.65-2.97)]; however, significantly lower proportion of them used sanitary toilets [54% vs. 78%; aOR-0.66 (95% CI-0.54-0.80)], boiled drinking water [16% vs. 38%; aOR-0.60 (95% CI-0.48-0.74)], used antimicrobial at home [63% vs. 82%; aOR-0.56 (95% CI-0.46-0.69)] and had some or severe dehydration [18% vs. 34%; aOR-0.15 (95% CI-0.12-0.20)] in 1st observation period compared to that of 2nd.

CONCLUSION: Proportion of episodes of under-5 rotavirus diarrhea increased over the period. Concomitant changes in host, socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, and co-infections were also observed. Thus, vaccination campaign which is prevailing in private sector should also be introduced in public sector.

Click here for full paper (Open Access).

California’a Ivanpah solar plant realities come into the light

“A cost/benefit analysis posted at the German Skeptical Science site finds Ivanpah, the world’s largest “solar” power plant, not only burns through a lot of birds, it inefficiently burns through a lot of fossil fuels and money as well. Ivanpah uses the ancient technology of firing steam boilers, which are far less efficient and generate higher emissions of CO2 & actual air pollutants than a modern gas turbine plant. “ Click here for full article at The Hockey Schtick.

Global Temperature Update – July 2014 – Data Set Comparison

The data set comparison below along with plots are presented here.

RSS UAH HADCRUT4 GISS NCDC
July 2014 0.35 0.30 0.55 0.52 0.64
Change from last month +0.00 +0.00 -0.07
-0.10 -0.08
12 month running average 0.23 0.25 0.53 0.64 0.66
Average 2004-13 0.23 0.19 0.47 0.59 0.59
12 month average – 1981-2010 Baseline 0.13 0.25 0.24 0.24 0.24

 

Arbitrary Adjustments and Climate Data Tampering Continues.

From Real Science:

NOAA Data Tampering – Always Worse Than It Seems