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“China’s Long March to Safe Drinking Water”

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NASA/NOAA Distorts Global Temperature Record

Click here for a full explanation at realclimatescience.com

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Naturally Occurring Radionuclides to Determine Distribution System Water Age

Waples JT, Bordewyk JK, Knesting KM, Orlandini KA. Using naturally occurring radionuclides to determine drinking water age in a community water system. Environmental science and technology. 2015 Jul 22.

Drinking water quality in a community water system is closely linked to the age of water from initial treatment to time of delivery. However, water age is difficult to measure with conventional chemical tracers; particularly in stagnant water, where the relationship between disinfectant decay, microbial growth, and water age is poorly understood. Using radionuclides that were naturally present in source water, we found that measured activity ratios of 90Y/90Sr and 234Th/238U in discrete drinking water samples of known age accurately estimated water age up to 9 days old (σest: ± 3.8 hours, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.998, n =11) and 25 days old (σest: ± 13.3 hours, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.996, n =12), respectively. Moreover, 90Y-derived water ages in a community water system (6.8 × 104 m3 d-1 capacity) were generally consistent with water ages derived from an extended period simulation model. Radionuclides differ from conventional chemical tracers in that they are ubiquitous in distribution mains and connected premise plumbing. The ability to measure both water age and an analyte (e.g., chemical or microbe) in any water sample at any time allows for new insight into factors that control drinking water quality.

Obamacare Penalty Hits More Americans Than Expected?

More than expected by whom? This was a no brainer to figure out from the very beginning .

“About 7.5 million Americans paid an average penalty of $200 for not having health insurance in 2014 — the first year most Americans were required to have coverage under the Affordable Care Act, the Internal Revenue Service said Tuesday.” click here

Click here and here for the full Obamacare legacy.

Capacity Factor Analysis for Evaluating Water and Sanitation Infrastructure

Bouabid A, Louis GE. Capacity factor analysis for evaluating water and sanitation infrastructure choices for developing communities. Journal of Environmental Management. 2015 Jul 20;161:335-343. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2015.07.012.

40% of the world’s population lacks access to adequate supplies of water and sanitation services to sustain human health. In fact, more than 780 million people lack access to safe water supplies and about 2.5 billion people lack access to basic sanitation. Appropriate technology for water supply and sanitation (Watsan) systems is critical for sustained access to these services. Current approaches for the selection of Watsan technologies in developing communities have a high failure rate. It is estimated that 30%-60% of Watsan installed infrastructures in developing countries are not operating. Inappropriate technology is a common explanation for the high rate of failure of Watsan infrastructure, particularly in lower-income communities (Palaniappan et al., 2008). This paper presents the capacity factor analysis (CFA) model, for the assessment of a community’s capacity to manage and sustain access to water supply and sanitation services. The CFA model is used for the assessment of a community’s capacity to operate, and maintain a municipal sanitation service (MSS) such as, drinking water supply, wastewater and sewage treatment, and management of solid waste. The assessment of the community’s capacity is based on seven capacity factors that have been identified as playing a key role in the sustainability of municipal sanitation services in developing communities (Louis, 2002). These capacity factors and their constituents are defined for each municipal sanitation service. Benchmarks and international standards for the constituents of the CFs are used to assess the capacity factors. The assessment of the community’s capacity factors leads to determine the overall community capacity level (CCL) to manage a MSS. The CCL can then be used to assist the community in the selection of appropriate Watsan technologies for their MSS needs. The selection is done from Watsan technologies that require a capacity level to operate them that matches the assessed CCL of the community.

20-Ft Sea Level Rise for New York? (Amended)

Claims of a 20-ft sea level rise for New York City look more like nonsense than scientific. Click here for more.

The mean sea level trend is 2.84 mm/year with a 95% confidence interval of +/- 0.09 mm/year based on monthly mean sea level data from 1856 to 2014 which is equivalent to a change of 0.93 feet in 100 years.

The Battery New York

[I am amending this post to clarify that it is entirely possible for the land occupied by New York City to be covered with 20 ft of ocean. But such a phenomena would require a global-scale water event (aka flood). Indeed, there is convincing evidence that a global-scale flood has occurred in the past. Arguing for the possibility of New York City (or any other city) being covered by 20 ft of water assumes that such a global-scale event is possible. I would agree.

What is nonsense is the underlying assumption of such claims that anthropogenic CO2 or any other human factor is going to cause or result in a global-scale flooding of New York and that an EPA greenhouse gas regulation would have stopped or slowed it down if it did occur. This, indeed, is ridiculous.

There are much greater forces at work that could bring about a global-scale event occurred resulting catastrophic sea level rise.]

Regulation of Plant Protection Product Metabolites; EU

Laabs V, Leake C, Botham P, Melching-Kollmuss S. Regulation of non-relevant metabolites of plant protection products in drinking and groundwater in the EU: Current status and way forward. Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology 2015 Jul 17. pii: S0273-2300(15)30003-9. doi: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2015.06.023.

Non-relevant metabolites are defined in the EU regulation for plant protection product authorization and a detailed definition of non-relevant metabolites is given in an EU Commission DG Sanco (now DG SANTE – Health and Food Safety) guidance document. However, in water legislation at EU and member state level non-relevant metabolites of pesticides are either not specifically regulated or diverse threshold values are applied. Based on their inherent properties, non-relevant metabolites should be regulated based on substance-specific and toxicity-based limit values in drinking and groundwater like other anthropogenic chemicals. Yet, if a general limit value for non-relevant metabolites in drinking and groundwater is favored, an application of a Threshold of Toxicological Concern (TTC) concept for Cramer class III compounds leads to a threshold value of 4.5 μg L-1. This general value is exemplarily shown to be protective for non-relevant metabolites, based on individual drinking water limit values derived for a set of 56 non-relevant metabolites. A consistent definition of non-relevant metabolites of plant protection products, as well as their uniform regulation in drinking and groundwater in the EU, is important to achieve legal clarity for all stakeholders and to establish planning security for development of plant protection products for the European market.