Liu X, Xiong L, Li D, Chen C, Cao Q. Monitoring and exposure assessment of organophosphorus flame retardants in source and drinking water, Nanjing, China. Environ Monit Assess. 2019 Jan 31;191(2):119. doi: 10.1007/s10661-019-7239-0.
This study developed a new method to determine the residues of 13 organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) in drinking water by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) technique and investigated the chemical distribution in water samples from municipal plants along the Yangtze River in Nanjing. The linear calibration correlation coefficients R2 for all 13 OPFRs were at least 0.998 0. Three levels of spiked test were performed. Most of the recoveries were in the range of 80~120%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) for the 13 OPFRs were 2.1~17% (n = 6). Five OPFRs were 100% positively detected in the samples, and 3 OPFRs were positively detected in some samples. The concentrations of detected OPFR in the water ranged from 0.7 to 5780.0 ng L-1. The average concentrations of OPFRs in wet season were higher than those in dry season, and the contaminants mainly originated from the source water in the Yangtze River. The exposure assessments of individual and total OPFRs were investigated. The estimated daily intakes of total OPFRs via ingestion of drinking water reached up to 64.8 and 45.2 ng/kg bw/day in dry and wet season, respectively. This study demonstrates a profile of OPFR distribution in Nanjing municipal water and provides information on human exposure assessment via drinking water in the Nanjing District, China.
“Several attorneys general and legal experts accused New York Thursday of overstepping the law after the state leveled lawsuits against energy companies for supposedly contributing to man-made global warming.” click here
Clewell HH 3rd, Gentry PR, Hack CE, Greene T, Clewell RA. An evaluation of the USEPA Proposed Approaches for applying a biologically based dose-response model in a risk assessment for perchlorate in drinking water. Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology. 2019 Jan 29. pii: S0273-2300(19)30036-4. doi: 10.1016/j.yrtph.2019.01.028.
The United States Environmental Protection Agency’s (USEPA) 2017 report, “Draft Report: Proposed Approaches to Inform the Derivation of a Maximum Contaminant Level Goal for Perchlorate in Drinking Water”, proposes novel approaches for deriving a Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG) for perchlorate using a biologically-based dose-response (BBDR) model. The USEPA (2017) BBDR model extends previously peer-reviewed perchlorate models to describe the relationship between perchlorate exposure and thyroid hormone levels during early pregnancy. Our evaluation focuses on two key elements of the USEPA (2017) report: the plausibility of BBDR model revisions to describe control of thyroid hormone production in early pregnancy and the basis for linking BBDR model results to neurodevelopmental outcomes. While the USEPA (2017) BBDR model represents a valuable research tool, the lack of supporting data for many of the model assumptions and parameters calls into question the fitness of the extended BBDR model to support quantitative analyses for regulatory decisions on perchlorate in drinking water. Until more data can be developed to address uncertainties in the current BBDR model, USEPA should continue to rely on the RfD recommended by the NAS (USEPA, 2005) when considering further regulatory action.
Jarvis P, Quy K, Macadam J, Edwards M, Smith M. Intake of lead (Pb) from tap water of homes with leaded and low lead plumbing systems. Sci Total Environ. 2018 Dec 10;644:1346-1356. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.07.064.
Methods of quantifying consumer exposure to lead in drinking water are increasingly of interest worldwide, especially those that account for consumer drinking habits and the semi-random nature of water lead release from plumbing systems. A duplicate intake protocol was developed in which individuals took a sub-sample from each measured drink they consumed in the home over three days in both winter and summer. The protocol was applied in two different water company regional areas (WC1 and WC2), selected to represent high risk situations in England, with the presence or absence of lead service pipes or phosphate corrosion control. Consumer exposure to lead was highest in properties with lead service pipes, served by water without P dosing. The protocol indicated that a small number of individuals in the study, all from homes with lead service pipes, consumed lead at levels that exceeded current guidance from the European Food Standards Agency. Children’s potential blood lead levels (BLLs) were estimated using the Internal Exposure Uptake Biokinetic model (IEUBK). The IEUBK model predicted that up to 46% of children aged 0-7 years old may have elevated BLLs (>5 μg/dL) when consuming the worst case drinking water quality (>99%ile). Estimating blood lead levels using the IEUBK model for more typical lead concentrations in drinking water identified in this study (between 0.1 and 7.1 μg/L), predicts that elevated BLLs may affect a small proportion of children between 0 and 7 years old.
Could that $3.5 Billion help pay for the border wall? Just wondering….
“California Governor Gavin Newsom announced yesterday that he was terminating former Governor Jerry Brown’s pet Green project; a high speed bullet train connecting Los Angeles to San Francisco.” click here
“California has been forced to cancel the massive bullet train project after having spent and wasted many billions of dollars,” Trump tweeted Thursday morning. “They owe the Federal Government three and a half billion dollars. We want that money back now. Whole project is a ‘green’ disaster!” click here
“A modest long-term (1800s-present) declining trend in ocean pH values predominantly occurred prior to 1930, or before anthropogenic CO2 emissions began rising precipitously. Since 1930, seawater pH trends have risen slightly, meaning sharply rising CO2 has been coincident with less, not more, ocean “acidification”.” click here
Thamires de Oliveira Moura, Franciele, Palmeira Campos, Iara Brandão, Yvonilde Dantas Pinto Medeiros. Inorganic and organic contaminants in drinking water stored in polyethylene cisterns Food Chemistry, Volume 273, 1 February 2019. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.03.104
This work evaluated the presence of contaminants in stored rainwater in 36 polyethylene tanks installed in two rural communities of the semiarid of Bahia, Brazil. Carbonyl compounds were analyzed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC-UV), BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylenes) by gas chromatoghaphy (GC-FID), and trace elements by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Seven carbonyl compounds were quantified including acrolein (<3–115 µg L−1), which is considered a potent mutagenic agent, above the potability limit in 75% of the cases. Trace elements such as copper, zinc, barium, aluminum and lead, more frequently found, were also quantified, and lead (<0,56–99 µg L−1) was above the tolerable limit for drinking water of 10 μg L−1 in 73% of the cases. The results show that the stored water in polyethylene cisterns in the Brazilian semiarid region does not present satisfactory conditions for human consumption.