Arsenic and Chronic Kidney Disease, Taiwan

Cheng YY, Huang NC, Chang YT, Sung JM, Shen KH, Tsai CC, Guo HR.
Associations between arsenic in drinking water and the progression of chronic kidney disease: A nationwide study in Taiwan. J Hazard Mater. 2016 Sep 14;321:432-439. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2016.09.032.

To evaluate the associations between exposure to arsenic in drinking water and the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD), we conducted a study in Taiwan. We recruited 8854 participants from a nationwide health screening program from 2000 to 2009 who were at least 20 years old and had two checkups in a 24-month period with at least 12 months apart. We defined CKD as having an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)5ml/min/1.73m2/year. Arsenic levels were assessed on the basis of a governmental nationwide survey. Of the 8854 participants, 1341 exhibited rapid progression. Participants who lived in areas with arsenic levels≥50μg/L had a higher risk of rapid progression, with an odds ratio of 1.22 (95% confidence interval: 1.05-1.42, p<0.01) after adjusting for hypertension, diabetes mellitus, proteinuria, and anemia. The results showed that a high arsenic level in drinking water was a risk factor for rapid progression of CKD, independent of most of the documented risk factors. Screening and intervention programs should be implemented in endemic areas of exposure to reduce the risk.

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Tehran’s Drinking Water

Sadeghi R, Kobarfard F, Yazdanpanah H, Eslamizad S, Bayate M. Simultaneous Determination of 13 Priority Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Tehran’s Tap Water and Water for Injection Samples Using Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Micro Extraction Method and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Iran J Pharm Res. 2016 Spring;15(2):475-81.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are classified as persistent and carcinogenic organic pollutants. PAHs contamination has been reported in water. Many of relevant regulatory bodies such as EU and EPA have regulated the limit levels for PAHs in drinking water. In this study, 13 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in tap water samples of Tehran and water for injection. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used for the extraction and determination of PAHs in the samples. Under the optimized conditions, the range of extraction recoveries and relative standard deviations (RSDs) of PAHs in water using internal standard (anthracene-d10) were in the range of 71-90% and 4-16%, respectively. Limit of detection for different PAHs were between 0.03 and 0.1 ngmL(-1). The concentration of PAHs in all tap water as well as water for injection samples were lower than the limit of quantification of PAHs. This is the first study addressing the occurrence of PAHs in water for injection samples in Iran using dispersive liquid-liquid micro extraction procedure combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

Decision Analysis of Global Warming and Human Activity

A very interesting post using a classic decision analysis approach to the problem.

“Our model shows that it does not matter whether human activity is actually the primary cause of global warming (90% probability). The currently advocated global environmental policies exemplified by the Kyoto Protocol, Cap and Trade laws, and the recently negotiated Paris climate agreement assume a deterministic relationship between global warming and anthropogenic CO2 forcing that operates in both directions. In other words, if humans caused it by their activity, they can “un-cause” it by reducing or ceasing that activity. This may not be the case. Our modeling effort suggests that we must be at least 55% certain that reducing human activity will cause a corresponding reduction in global warming before we even consider the current regulatory policies advocated by the environmental movement.” click here for  post at WUWT

Sources of Campylobacter Exposure, Ontario, Canada

Pintar KD, Thomas KM, Christidis T, Otten A, Nesbitt A, Marshall B, Pollari, Hurst M, Ravel A. A Comparative Exposure Assessment of Campylobacter in Ontario, Canada. Risk analysis 2016 Sep 18. doi: 10.1111/risa.12653.

To inform source attribution efforts, a comparative exposure assessment was developed to estimate the relative exposure to Campylobacter, the leading bacterial gastrointestinal disease in Canada, for 13 different transmission routes within Ontario, Canada, during the summer. Exposure was quantified with stochastic models at the population level, which incorporated measures of frequency, quantity ingested, prevalence, and concentration, using data from FoodNet Canada surveillance, the peer-reviewed and gray literature, other Ontario data, and data that were specifically collected for this study. Models were run with @Risk software using Monte Carlo simulations. The mean number of cells of Campylobacter ingested per Ontarian per day during the summer, ranked from highest to lowest is as follows: household pets, chicken, living on a farm, raw milk, visiting a farm, recreational water, beef, drinking water, pork, vegetables, seafood, petting zoos, and fruits. The study results identify knowledge gaps for some transmission routes, and indicate that some transmission routes for Campylobacter are underestimated in the current literature, such as household pets and raw milk. Many data gaps were identified for future data collection consideration, especially for the concentration of Campylobacter in all transmission routes.

Occurrence of Nonylphenol and Bisphenol A in Household Water Pipes

Cheng YC, Chen HW, Chen WL, Chen CY, Wang GS. Occurrence of nonylphenol and bisphenol A in household water pipes made of different materials. Environmental monitoring and assessment 2015 Oct;188(10):562. doi: 10.1007/s10661-016-5556-0.

We assessed the occurrence of nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) in tap water supplied through polyvinyl chloride (PVC), stainless steel, and galvanized pipes. Water samples were collected from selected households in Taipei and Kaohsiung (Northern and Southern Taiwan, respectively) in different seasons to elucidate the effects of pipeline materials and ambient temperatures on NP and BPA concentrations in tap water. We detected higher concentrations of NP in tap water from households using PVC pipes (64-195 ng/L) than from those using stainless steel pipes (17-44 ng/L) and galvanized pipes (27-96 ng/L). To verify that water can absorb NP and BPA from PVC pipes, we sealed Milli-Q and tap water in PVC and stainless steel pipes to assess the potential release of NP and BPA from the pipes into the water. Both NP and BPA concentrations initially increased with contact time in the PVC pipes, and the concentration profiles during the retention appeared to be more strongly affected by ambient temperatures. Concentration variations in the stainless steel pipes were smaller than those in the PVC pipes.

Sea Level Rise Fraud from a Government Agency

“James Hansen claims that there have been two sharp increases in sea level rise, one around 1920 and the other in the mid-1990’s. He says sea level is rising four times as fast as it was in the 19th century.” click here for a full explanation to the contrary.

2016 Arctic Sea Ice up 25% since 2012, Polar Temperatures Drop

“Arctic sea ice extent for 2016 is up nearly 25 percent over 2012 levels as polar temperatures continue to drop. The information comes from satellite imagery provided by the Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI) and the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), which has been tracking Arctic ice extent since satellitemeasurements began in 1979.” click here for full article