NASA Changed the Data To Get the Answer it Desired?

Sure looks like it here.

Unfortunately, i’ve seen this type of data manipulation in other university contexts.

Precipitation Variability Normal Across United States

Mallakpour, I. and Villarini, G. Analysis of changes in the magnitude, frequency, and seasonality of heavy precipitation over the contiguous USA
Theoretical and Applied Climatology (2016). doi:10.1007/s00704-016-1881-z

Gridded daily precipitation observations over the contiguous USA are used to investigate the past observed changes in the frequency and magnitude of heavy precipitation, and to examine its seasonality. Analyses are based on the Climate Prediction Center (CPC) daily precipitation data from 1948 to 2012. We use a block maxima approach to identify changes in the magnitude of heavy precipitation and a peak-over-threshold (POT) approach for the changes in the frequency. The results of this study show that there is a stronger signal of change in the frequency rather than in the magnitude of heavy precipitation events. Also, results show an increasing trend in the frequency of heavy precipitation over large areas of the contiguous USA with the most notable exception of the US Northwest. These results indicate that over the last 65 years, the stronger storms are not getting stronger, but a larger number of heavy precipitation events have been observed. The annual maximum precipitation and annual frequency of heavy precipitation reveal a marked seasonality over the contiguous USA. However, we could not find any evidence suggesting shifting in the seasonality of annual maximum precipitation by investigating whether the day of the year at which the maximum precipitation occurs has changed over time. Furthermore, we examine whether the year-to-year variations in the frequency and magnitude of heavy precipitation can be explained in terms of climate variability driven by the influence of the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Our findings indicate that the climate variability of both the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans can exert a large control on the precipitation frequency and magnitude over the contiguous USA. Also, the results indicate that part of the spatial and temporal features of the relationship between climate variability and heavy precipitation magnitude and frequency can be described by one or more of the climate indices considered here.


Climate Models Overestimate Global Warming

John C. Fyfe, Nathan P. Gillett, Francis W. Zwiers. Overestimated global warming over the past 20 years. Nature Climate Change, 767–769 (2013) doi:10.1038/nclimate1972

Recent observed global warming is significantly less than that simulated by climate models. This difference might be explained by some combination of errors in external forcing, model response and internal climate variability.

Skeletal Fluorosis in Two Study Areas, India

Shruthi MN, Santhuram AN, Arun HS, Kishore Kumar BN. A comparative study of skeletal fluorosis among adults in two study areas of Bangarpet taluk, Kolar. Indian journal of public health. 2016 Jul-Sep;60(3):203-9. doi: 10.4103/0019-557X.189014.

BACKGROUND: Skeletal fluorosis is a crippling disease resulting from excessive exposure to high fluoride from different sources.

OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of skeletal fluorosis in Bangarpet taluk of Kolar, to compare various epidemiological factors influencing the occurrence of skeletal fluorosis among the two groups with differential water fluoride levels, and to estimate fluoride levels in all the sources of drinking water in study areas.

METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among the adults of three randomly selected villages of Bangarpet taluk, Thimmasandra, Batavarahalli, with high (>1.5 mg/L) and Maddinayakanahalli with normal (<1.0 mg/L) fluoride levels. A house-to-house survey was conducted by administering a semi-structured questionnaire. Skeletal fluorosis was assessed by three simple physical tests in the field followed by radiological confirmation among the positives. Fluoride levels of drinking water sources were estimated by the ion-electrode method. Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests were used as tests of association.

RESULTS: The prevalence of skeletal fluorosis at field level in both high and normal fluoride groups was 5.0%. Water fluoride levels in Thimmasandra, Batavarahalli, and Maddinayakanahalli were 4.13 mg/L, 2.59 mg/L, and 0.61 mg/L, respectively. Among the subjects with skeletal fluorosis, a significant difference was observed between socioeconomic status and prevalence of skeletal fluorosis in both high and normal fluoride groups (P<0.05).

Excess Fluoride and Thyroid Toxicity

Liu H, Hou C, Zeng Q, Zhao L, Cui Y, Yu L, Wang L, Zhao Y, Nie J, Zhang B, Wang A. Role of endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis in rat thyroid toxicity caused by excess fluoride and/or iodide. Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology. 2016 Aug 9;46:277-285. doi: 10.1016/j.etap.2016.08.007.

Excess fluoride and iodide coexist in drinking water in many regions, but few studies have investigated the single or interactive effects on thyroid in vivo. In our study, Wistar rats were exposed to excess fluoride and/or iodide through drinking water for 2 or 8 months. The structure and function of the thyroid, cells apoptosis and the expression of inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1) pathway-related factors were analyzed. Results demonstrated that excess fluoride and/or iodide could change thyroid follicular morphology and alter thyroid hormone levels in rats. After 8 months treatment, both single and co-exposure of the two microelements could raise the thyroid cells apoptosis. However, the expressions of IRE1-related factors were only increased in fluoride-alone and the combined groups. In conclusion, thyroid structure and thyroid function were both affected by excess fluoride and/or iodide. IRE1-induced apoptosis were involved in this cytotoxic process caused by fluoride or the combination of two microelements.

Solar Activity has a Direct Impact on Earth’s Cloud Cover

The practical significance of this study is discussed here.

J. Svensmark, M. B. Enghoff, N. J. Shaviv, H. Svensmark. The response of clouds and aerosols to cosmic ray decreases. Journal of Geophysical Research: Space Physics, 2016; DOI: 10.1002/2016JA022689

A method is developed to rank Forbush Decreases (FDs) in the galactic cosmic ray radiation according to their expected impact on the ionization of the lower atmosphere. Then a Monte Carlo bootstrap based statistical test is formulated to estimate the significance of the apparent response in physical and micro-physical cloud parameters to FDs. The test is subsequently applied to one ground based and three satellite based datasets. Responses (> 95%) to FDs are found in the following parameters of the analyzed datasets. AERONET: Ångström exponent (cloud condensation nuclei changes), SSM/I: liquid water content, ISCCP: total, high and middle, IR detected clouds over the oceans, MODIS: cloud effective emissivity, cloud optical thickness, liquid water, cloud fraction, liquid water path, liquid cloud effective radius. Moreover, the responses in MODIS are found to correlate positively with the strength of the FDs, and the signs and magnitudes of the responses agree with model based expectations. The effect is mainly seen in liquid clouds. An impact through changes in UV driven photo chemistry is shown to be negligible and an impact via UV absorption in the stratosphere is found to have no effect on clouds. The total solar irradiance has a relative decrease in connection with FDs of the order of 10−3, which is too small to have a thermodynamic impact on timescales of a few days. The results demonstrate that there is a real influence of FDs on clouds probably through ions.

Excess Sodium Fluoride and Hypertension

Oyagbemi AA, Omobowale TO, Asenuga ER, Adejumobi AO, Ajibade TO, Ogunpolu BS, Adedapo AA, Yakubu MA. Sodium fluoride induces hypertension and cardiac complications through generation of reactive oxygen species and activation of nuclear factor kappa beta. Environmental Toxicology. 2016 Jul 5. doi: 10.1002/tox.22306.

Human exposure to sodium fluoride through its daily usage is almost inevitable. Cardiovascular and renal dysfunction has been associated with fluoride toxicity. Therefore, this study investigated the mechanism of action of sodium fluoride (NaF) induced hypertension and cardiovascular complications Forty male albino rats of an average of 10 rats per group were used. Group A received clean tap water. Toxicity was induced in Group B to D by administering graded doses of NaF through drinking water ad libitum for 10 days at 150 ppm, 300 ppm, and 600 ppm concentration respectively. Following administration of NaF, there was significant increase in systolic pressure, diastolic pressure and mean arterial pressure. Markers of oxidative stress; malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, advance oxidation protein products, and protein carbonyl were significantly increased in dose-dependent pattern in the cardiac and renal tissues of rats together with significant decrease in the GST activity in NaF-treated rats compared to the control. Also serum markers of inflammation, cardiac, and renal damage including myeloperoxidase, xanthine oxidase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and Creatinine kinase myocardial band (CK-MB) significantly increased indicating induction of oxidative stress, renal, and cardiac damage after exposure. Histopathology of the kidney and heart revealed aberrations in the histological architecture in NaF-treated rats. Also, immunohistochemistry showed higher expression of nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-kB) in the cardiac and renal tissues of rats administered NaF. Combining all, these results indicate NaF-induced hypertension through generation of reactive oxygen species and activation of renal and cardiac NF-kB expressions.