Greenland glaciers either stable of growing

“In 2018, 26 of Greenland’s 47 largest glaciers were either stable or grew in size. Overall, the 47 glaciers advanced by +4.1  km² during 2018.  Of the 6 largest glaciers, 4 grew while 2 retreated. Since 2012, ice loss has been “minor” to “modest” due to the dramatic melting slowdown. Summer average temperatures for 2018 were lower than the 2008-2018 average by more than one standard deviation. Since 2000, the extent of the non-snow-covered areas of Greenland has increased by 500 km² per year.” click here

Calculating the average surface temperature of the earth

“The CERES image is a single snapshot of the Earth’s thermal radiant emission to space. This image contains a significant amount of information, however to understand this in its global context we must first calibrate the image against known measurements of the major components of the Earth’s atmospheric system.” click here

Impact of CO2 on ocean chemistry

“The pH value higher than 7 allows seawater to dissolve and react huge amounts of CO2 , carbon dioxide, thus affecting the amount of this gas in the atmosphere by absorbing excess of it. To calculate this excess in respect to what would be the true equilibrium value in the air, all of the chemical reactions involved have to be simultaneously computed, accounting for their equilibrium constants, which in turn depend on temperature.” click here

Exactly how large are global fossil fuel subsidies?

“The expenses involved in extracting a depleting resource have to be written off as the resource is produced (depletion allowance). Some capital expenditures are allowed to be written off as expenses, rather than capitalized over time. When we drill wells, tangible drilling expenditures (items with salvage value) have to be capitalized. Intangible drilling expenditures (services and materials with no salvage value) can written off as expenses. According to the most recent EIA analysis of energy subsidies, fossil fuels received almost no net subsidies…”

Will the earth’s natural resources run out?

“Last week, the World Wildlife Fund proclaimed May 10 to be Europe’s Overshoot Day, the day that Europe consumed its portion of Earth’s resources for the year. The WWF, the United Nations and universities continue to warn that modern society is rapidly depleting our natural resources. But instead, trends show that for all practical purposes, Earth’s resources will never run out.” click here

Heat island effect on surface temperature measurements underestimated

R.D. Leeper, J. Kochendorfer, T. Henderson, M.A. Palecki. Impacts of Small-Scale Urban Encroachment on Air Temperature Observations. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology. https://doi.org/10.1175/JAMC-D-19-0002.1

A field experiment was performed in Oak Ridge, TN, with four instrumented towers placed over grass at increasing distances (4, 30, 50, 124, and 300 m) from a built-up area. Stations were aligned in such a way to simulate the impact of small-scale encroachment on temperature observations. As expected, temperature observations were warmest for the site closest to the built environment with an average temperature difference of 0.31 and 0.24 °C for aspirated and unaspirated sensors respectively. Mean aspirated temperature differences were greater during the evening (0.47 °C) than day (0.16 °C). This was particularly true for evenings following greater daytime solar insolation (20+ MJDay−1) with surface winds from the direction of the built environment where mean differences exceeded 0.80 °C. The impact of the built environment on air temperature diminished with distance with a warm bias only detectable out to tower-B’ located 50 meters away.

The experimental findings were comparable to a known case of urban encroachment at a U. S. Climate Reference Network station in Kingston, RI. The experimental and operational results both lead to reductions in the diurnal temperature range of ~0.39 °C for fan aspirated sensors. Interestingly, the unaspirated sensor had a larger reduction in DTR of 0.48 °C. These results suggest that small-scale urban encroachment within 50 meters of a station can have important impacts on daily temperature extrema (maximum and minimum) with the magnitude of these differences dependent upon prevailing environmental conditions and sensing technology.

“…no dangerous warming in the past two decades,…even the past 200 years”

“It can, however, be declared with absolute certainty that there has been no dangerous warming in the past two decades, and even in the past 200 years. The post-Little Ice Age warming trend has been anything but dangerous, causing hardly any negative impact on the ecosystem or the life forms. Instead, it has brought lengthened growing seasons, more abundant vegetative growth, and more abundant food for people and everything else.” click here