Fluoride content of tea infusions, Portugal

Linhares DP, Garcia PV, Amaral L, Ferreira T, Dos Santos Rodrigues A. Safety Evaluation of Fluoride Content in Tea Infusions Consumed in the Azores-a Volcanic Region with Water Springs naturally Enriched in Fluoride. Biological trace element research. 2017 Jan 24. doi: 10.1007/s12011-017-0947-9.

Tea is the second most commonly consumed beverage in the world. It is well recognized that the consumption of tea in high quantities can promote the development of fluorosis. The main objective of this study is to estimate the exposure to fluoride in the Azores through drinking tea prepared with water from different volcanic locations, by i) investigating the fluoride (F) content of various commercial brands of tea (Camellia sinensis) marketed in Azores and ii) comparing tea releasing rates of F according to brewing time, considering the fluoride concentration in the different types of water used for the infusion. Fluoride contents were determined by ion-selective electrode in 30 samples of drinking water from three different locations and in 450 samples of tea (black and green tea) from three different brands. Fluoride concentration in water ranged from 0.29 to 1.56 ppm (Porto Formoso and Sete Cidades village, respectively). Fluoride concentrations increased with brewing time, reaching the highest values in the Azorean black and green tea infusions. For all the studied brands, a negative correlation was found between tea fluoride contents and the pH of the water used to prepare the infusion. Fluoride concentration in infusions was significantly associated with the background fluoride concentration in drinking water. Since the fluoride concentration in groundwater varies accordingly to the geological conditions and tea consumption can contribute to fluoride intake, it is important to define the limits for tea consumption, particularly in fluoride-rich areas.

Global lukewarming


“When it comes to global warming, most people think there are two camps: “alarmist” or “denier” being their respective pejoratives. Either you acknowledge the existence of man-made climate change and consider it a dire global threat, or you deny it exists at all. But there is a third group: the “lukewarmers.” In Lukewarming: The New Climate Science that Changes Everything, Pat Michaels and Chip Knappenberger explain the real science and spin behind the headlines and come to a provocative conclusion: global warming is not hot—it’s lukewarm. Climate change is real, it is partially man-made, but it is clearer than ever that its impact has been exaggerated—with many of the headline-grabbing predictions now being rendered implausible or impossible.” click here

Climate models for the layman

From the Executive Summary (here):

There is considerable debate over the fidelity and utility of global climate models (GCMs). This debate occurs within the community of climate scientists, who disagree about the amount of weight to give to climate models relative to observational analyses. GCM outputs are also used by economists, regulatory agencies and policy makers, so GCMs have received considerable scrutiny from a broader community of scientists, engineers, software experts, and philosophers of science. This report attempts to describe the debate surrounding GCMs to an educated but nontechnical audience.

Key summary points

• GCMs have not been subject to the rigorous verification and validation that is the norm for engineering and regulatory science.

• There are valid concerns about a fundamental lack of predictability in the complex nonlinear climate system.

• There are numerous arguments supporting the conclusion that climate models are not fit for the purpose of identifying with high confidence the proportion of the 20th century warming that was human-caused as opposed to natural.

• There is growing evidence that climate models predict too much warming from increased atmospheric carbon dioxide.

• The climate model simulation results for the 21st century reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) do not include key elements of climate variability, and hence are not useful as projections for how the 21st century climate will actually evolve.

Climate models are useful tools for conducting scientific research to understand the climate system. However, the above points support the conclusion that current GCMs are not fit for the purpose of attributing the causes of 20th century warming or for predicting global or regional climate change on timescales of decades to centuries, with any high level of confidence. By extension, GCMs are not fit for the purpose of justifying political policies to fundamentally alter world social, economic and energy systems. It is this application of climate model results that fuels the vociferousness of the debate surrounding climate models.

Coffee consumption found to be safe

Chrysant SG The impact of coffee consumption on blood pressure, cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus. Expert review of cardiovascular therapy. 2017 Feb 3:1-6. doi: 10.1080/14779072.2017.1287563.

Introduction: Coffee is the most widely consumed beverage, next to water. However, there has been a long-standing controversy regarding its safety on blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and intuitively, physicians dissuaded their patients from coffee drinking.

Areas covered: This controversy was, primarily, based on older prospective studies or case reports, which showed a positive association of coffee drinking with the incidence of hypertension and CVD. In contrast to these reports, recent, well controlled, studies have demonstrated either a neutral or beneficial effect of moderate coffee consumption (3-4 cups/day), on BP, CVD, heart failure (HF), cardiac arrhythmias, or diabetes mellitus (DM). For the preparation of this special report, an English language focused search of the Medline database was conducted between 2010 and 2016 on studies with data on effect on the coffee consumption in patients with high BP, CVD, HF, cardiac arrhythmias or DM. Of the 94 abstracts reviewed, 34 pertinent papers were selected, and the findings from these papers together with collateral literature will be discussed in this special report.

Expert commentary: Based on the evidence from these studies, coffee consumption in moderation, is safe and is beneficial in both healthy persons as well as patients with high BP, CVD, HF, cardiac arrhythmias or DM. Therefore, coffee restriction is not warranted for these patients, although some caution should be exercised.

Miami, Florida will be completely flooded very soon

Imagine. Miami is about to be completely inundated in only 0.78 feet of water! It will be a miracle….happy-bouncing-smilie



The mean sea level trend is 2.39 millimeters/year with a 95% confidence
interval of +/- 0.43 mm/yr based on monthly mean sea level data from
1931 to 1981 which is equivalent to a change of 0.78 feet in 100 years.

But the above graph stops in 1981. So let’s go further south.


The mean sea level trend is 2.37 millimeters/year with a 95% confidence
interval of +/- 0.15 mm/yr based on monthly mean sea level data from
1913 to 2015 which is equivalent to a change of 0.78 feet in 100 years.

Why look! The trend line slope for Key West from 1913 – 2015 is exactly the same as for Miami….0.78 ft per 100 years.

For Miami to become a modern-day Atlantis a global flood would have to occur. Yes a global flood is certainly possible. But the above trend does not suggest anything close to a global flood. Exaggerated claims made such as this are unsupported at best and are nonsense as a practical matter.

“This past Friday, however, the U.S. Senate effectively announced it’s cool with Miami becoming a modern-day Atlantis. Senators — including Florida’s own “not a scientist” Marco Rubio — confirmed President Trump’s climate-change-bashing choice for Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) head, Scott Pruitt.” click here for more

Himalayan glaciers are doing just fine, thank you

“The claim that Himalayan glaciers are set to disappear by 2035 rests on two 1999 magazine [phone] interviews with glaciologist Syed Hasnain, which were then recycled without any further investigation in a 2005 report by the environmental [activist] group WWF. It was this report that Dr Lal and his team cited as their source.”  click here for a full discussion at the Notrickszone.

Toxicity evaluation of organic extracts from drinking water, Guangdong Province

Guan Y, Wang X, Wong M, Sun G, An T, Guo J, Zhang G. Evaluation of Genotoxic and Mutagenic Activity of Organic Extracts from Drinking Water Sources. PloS one. 2017 Jan 26;12(1):e0170454. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0170454.

An increasing number of industrial, agricultural and commercial chemicals in the aquatic environment lead to various deleterious effects on organisms, which is becoming a serious global health concern. In this study, the Ames test and SOS/umu test were conducted to investigate the potential genotoxicity and mutagenicity caused by organic extracts from drinking water sources. Organic content of source water was extracted with XAD-2 resin column and organic solvents. Four doses of the extract equivalent to 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2L of source water were tested for toxicity. All the water samples were collected from six different locations in Guangdong province. The results of the Ames test and SOS/umu test showed that all the organic extracts from the water samples could induce different levels of DNA damage and mutagenic potentials at the dose of 2 L in the absence of S9 mix, which demonstrated the existence of genotoxicity and mutagenicity. Additionally, we found that Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 was more sensitive for the mutagen. Correlation analysis between genotoxicity, Organochlorine Pesticides (OCPs) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) showed that most individual OCPs were frame shift toxicants in drinking water sources, and there was no correlation with total OCPs and PAHs.