Daily Archives: June 4, 2011

Bromoxynil – USEPA Risk Assessment for New Uses on Grass and Grain Sorghum

Bromoxynil (3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxybenzonitrile) is a contact herbicide registered for application as the octanoic and/or heptanoic acid esters for control of broadleaf weeds in various crops.

USEPA has completed a risk assessment of acute, chronic, and cancer aggregate dietary (food and drinking water) exposure and risk assessments for bromoxynil using the Dietary Exposure Evaluation Model DEEM-FCID™, Version 2.03.  The model uses food consumption data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Continuing Surveys of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII) from 1994-1996 and 1998.  This assessment was published March 22, 2011 and serves as an update to the 1998 dietary assessment for bromoxynil using current approaches and input data.

For surface waters, the first highest estimated drinking water concentration was found to be 11.5 ug/L based on application to sorghum. For an annual average  first highest estimated drinking water concentration was 0.19 ug/L also based on application to sorghum. 

For ground water, the highest estimated drinking water concentration was found to be 0.00326 ug/L based on cotton.

The DEEM-FCID ™ analysis assumes that all drinking water will contain bromoxynil at the highest chronic estimated drinking water concentration for groundwater or surface water. 

Bromoxynil is classified as “Possible Human Carcinogen” based on male mouse hepatocellular tumors found in the long term cancer studies. The cancer analyses yielded an aggregate (food and water) risk estimate of 1.5 x 10-6 (1.5:1,000,000) for the general US Population.

Click here to access the USEPA assessment, Bromoxynil: Acute, Chronic, and Cancer Aggregate Dietary (Food and Drinking Water) Exposure and Risk Assessments for the New Uses on Grass and Grain Sorghum

Goode and Palle´ 2011 – Natural Cloud Changes Affect Warming

Goode and Palle (2011) examined historical data and conclude that natural changes in cloud cover from 1983 to 2004 (21 years) account for at least 3 times as much warming as attributed to greenhouse gasses from 1900 to 2004 (104 years).  We know from this work and the work of others that climate models do not account very well for cloud cover.

Goode, P.R., and E. Palle´ 2011. Shortwave forcing of the Earth’s climate: Modern and historical variations in the Sun’s irradiance and the Earth’s reflectance. Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics 69 (2007) 1556–1568.

Click here for the full text of the paper.

Click here for further discussion of this paper.


Phnom Penh, Cambodia – Good Governance Needed for Water?

Ek Sonn Chan, 61, heads the Phnom Penh Water Supply Authority. He believes 100 percent that solving water problems for everyone in this world is 100 percent possible.

“It’s not the problem of scarcity of water resources; it’s not the lack of financing, but because of the lack of good governance.”

Click here for the full news article and interview.

But practical questions must be asked, “To what standard of quality and service is water to be supplied?” “Who decides how much should water cost?” “Who is ultimately responsible for providing clean water in a village, town, or city?”