Daily Archives: September 26, 2011

Tenuta, L.M. and Cury, J.A. 2010: Fluoride, its role in dentistry

Tenuta, L.M. and Cury, J.A. 2010. Fluoride: its role in dentistry. Brazilian Oral Research, 2010; 24 Suppl 1:9-17.   http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1806-83242010000500003

Biochemistry and Cariology – Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, SP, Brazil.

Click here to obtain the full paper (free).

Abstract

In spite of decades of research on fluoride and the recognition of its role as the cornerstone of dental caries reduction in the last fifty years, questions still arise on its use at community, self-applied and professional application levels. Which method of fluoride delivery should be used? How and when should it be used? How can its benefits be maximized and still reduce the risks associated with its use? These are only some of the challenging questions facing us daily. The aim of this paper is to present scientific background to understand the importance of each method of fluoride use considering the current caries epidemiological scenario, and to discuss how individual or combined methods can be used based on the best evidence available.

Yeung, C.A. 2008: A systematic review of the efficacy and safety of fluoridation

Yeung, C.A. A systematic review of the efficacy and safety of fluoridation. Evidence-Based Dentistry 9, 39-43 (2008) | doi:10.1038/sj.ebd.6400578

Department of Public Health, National Health Service Lanarkshire, Hamilton, Lanarkshire, Scotland, UK. nhmrc.publications@nhmrc.gov.au

Click here to obtain the paper (fee).

Abstract

SCOPE AND PURPOSE: The systematic review was commissioned by the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council (NHMRC) to evaluate the scientific literature relating to the health effects of fluoride and fluoridation. The systematic review’s research questions relate to the caries-reducing benefits and associated potential health risks of providing fluoride systemically (via addition to water, milk and salt) and the use of topical fluoride agents, such as toothpaste, gel, varnish and mouthrinse. Although the review summarises the recent evidence, it does not constitute health policy or clinical practice recommendations.

DATA SOURCES:

A literature search was undertaken using the Medline and Embase databases (via http://www.embase.com). In addition, the Cochrane Systematic Review and Clinical Trial databases were searched to help identify additional systematic reviews and original studies. Because of the availability of recent systematic reviews, searches were limited to publications from 1996 onwards . The search was conducted in December 2006 and limited to English-language publications.

STUDY SELECTION:

Based on types of intervention (individual or population) and the outcomes assessed (efficacy or safety), the hierarchy of study types considered most relevant for answering each of the clinical questions defined in this review was chosen (Table 1). The levels of evidence used by NHMRC for intervention and aetiological studies are summarised in Table 2.

DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS:

Screening of eligible studies was conducted by three reviewers. Data were extracted for all of the included systematic reviews and individual studies using standardised data-extraction forms. This included information about the study design, NHMRC level of evidence, population, intervention, comparator, outcome definitions and results. Information relating to potential biases and study quality were also extracted. Where appropriate, study results were pooled using standard meta-analysis techniques.

RESULTS:

In total, 5418 nonduplicate citations were identified. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 408 citations were considered potentially eligible for inclusion in the review. After the review of the full papers of potentially eligible articles, 77 citations were included in the review. The summary of findings was presented in the context of the research questions (Table 3).

RECOMMENDATIONS:

Fluoridation of drinking water remains the most effective and socially equitable means of achieving community-wide exposure to the caries prevention effects of fluoride. It is recommended (see also http://www.nhmrc.gov.au/news/media/rel07/_files/fluoride_flyer.pdf) that water be fluoridated in the target range of 0.6-1.1 mg/l, depending on the climate, to balance reduction of dental caries and occurrence of dental fluorosis.n particular with reference to care in hospital for those following stroke.

Terror attacks caused by climate alarmism….

<<Update Sept 27, 2011: No response from the Sierra club, which is not surprising. They will ignore it hoping I go away.  I have some news for them….>>

Those who are still advancing the fictional idea that runaway global warming will occur because of CO2 and that carbon credits and trading are needed to save the earth must take a broader view of the negative global impact of this argument.

Environmentalists are rightly upset when an industry goes into a developing country and takes advantage of the people and trashes the environment.

But did they or anyone else complain or protest when 20,000 people in Uganda were displaced and some killed, with houses burned, because of the ideology of global warmism? Some villagers were attacked while in church……Or do environmental groups in the US support this type of behavior in order to save the earth?

Since I have been a life member of the Sierra Club since the 1970s (and have agreed with them on very little when it comes to policy and activism),….let me ask them here…..what is the Sierra Club response?

Click here and click here.

Source: PrisonPlanet.com