Daily Archives: October 28, 2011

Latin American communities urged to go to Court for access to water

Speakers at a conference in Mexico City noted that Courts are accepting lawsuits related to water rights.  Communities without water should push their Courts to recognize their right to water….

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Assem et al 2011: The mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of inorganic manganese compounds: a synthesis of the evidence

F.L. Assem, P. Holmes, and L.S. Levy. The mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of inorganic manganese compounds: a synthesis of the evidence. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2011 Nov;14(8):537-70.

Manganese (Mn), a naturally occurring element present in many foodstuffs, is an essential trace element with many biological functions. In industry, inorganic Mn compounds have a range of different applications, although the majority of Mn is used to make alloys and steel. For the general population, the major source of exposure to Mn is dietary, although drinking water may constitute an additional source in some regions. However, in occupationally exposed humans, inhalation of Mn is likely to be an important additional route. In general, Mn and its inorganic compounds are considered to possess low mutagenic or carcinogenic potential compared with some heavy metals. In this review, an up-to-date analysis of the available published studies on the carcinogenic and genotoxic potential of inorganic Mn is provided (organic Mn compounds are not considered). The current literature indicates that Mn may be weakly mutagenic in vitro and possibly clastogenic in vivo, with unknown genotoxic effects in humans; the possible mechanisms underlying these effects are discussed. The experimental evidence on carcinogenicity (quantitative increase in incidence of thyroid tumors in mice but not rats) does not provide any clear evidence, while the available occupational and environmental epidemiological evidence is equivocal as to whether exposure to inorganic Mn is associated with a significant cancer risk. Hence, it is concluded that there is insufficient evidence to indicate that inorganic Mn exposure produces cancer in animals or humans.

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