The proposal put forth in Durban contains wording of concern to everyone reading this blog as well as every American. A few points are below, but for more discussion and detail click here.
- A new International Climate Courtwill have the power to compel Western nations to pay money to make reparation for “climate debt”. The Court will have no power over third-world countries.
- The rights of Mother Earth are recognized to ensure harmony between humanity and nature. There will be no commodification of the functions of nature.
- War and the maintenance of defence forces and equipment are to cease because they contribute to climate change.
- A new global temperature target will aim to limit global warming to as little as 1 C° above pre-industrial levels.
- The new CO2 emissions target, for Western countries only, will be a reduction of up to 50% in emissions over the next eight years and of more than 100% by 2050.
Posted in Climate
I. Blaszczyk, E. Birkner, I. Gutowska, E. Romuk, and D. Chlubek. Influence of Methionine and Vitamin E on Fluoride Concentration in Bones and Teeth of Rats Exposed to Sodium Fluoride in Drinking Water. Biological Trace Element Research 2011 Nov 9.
Department of Biochemistry, Silesian Medical University, 19 Jordana Str., 41-808, Zabrze, Poland, firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: Increased exposure to fluorine-containing compounds leads to accumulation of fluorides in hard tissues of bones and teeth, which may result in numerous skeletal and dental disorders. This study evaluates the influence of methionine and vitamin E on fluoride concentration in bones and teeth of rats subjected to long-term exposure to sodium fluoride in drinking water. The study was conducted in 30 3-month-old female Wistar FL rats. The animals were divided into five groups, six rats per group. The control group consisted of rats receiving only distilled water as drinking water. All other groups received NaF in the amount of 10 mg/kg of body mass/day in their drinking water. In addition, respective animal groups received: NaF + Met group-10 mg of methionine/kg of body mass/day, NaF + Met + E group-10 mg of methionine/kg of body mass/day and 3 mg of vitamin E (tocopheroli acetas)/rat/day and NaF + E group-3 mg of vitamin E/rat/day. Femoral bones and incisor teeth were collected for the study, and the fluoride concentration was determined using a fluoride ion-selective electrode. Fluoride concentration in both bones and teeth was found to be higher in the NaF and NaF + Met groups compared to the control group. In groups NaF + Met + E and NaF + E, the study material contained much lower fluoride concentration compared to the NaF group, while the effect was more prominent in the NaF + E group. The results of the studies indicate that methionine and vitamin E have opposite effects on accumulation of fluorides in hard tissue in rats. By stimulating fluoride accumulation, methionine reduces the adverse effect of fluorides on soft tissue, while vitamin E, which prevents excessive accumulation of fluorides in bones and teeth, protects these tissues from fluorosis. Therefore, it seems that combined application of both compounds would be optimal for the prevention of the adverse effects of chronic fluoride intoxication.
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