Daily Archives: January 21, 2012

American Fork (Utah) water rates going up….

When water conservation measures work, it is typical for water revenues to drop…..when revenues drop….water rates must go up to cover operation and maintenance…….click here for news on American Fork, Utah….

Press Spin: New Jersey waters worse than ever (and it’s Christie’s fault)

A three-part series of articles reviews the poor condition of New Jersey’s waters….over a 40 year period since the Clean Water Act (CWA)…..Of course, the blame will be given to the current GOP Governor….rather than the Democrat state officials of the past where the blame rightly¬†belongs…..

Click here for the first article….

Bangalore (India) bottled water quality – Buyer beware!

Packaged drinking water scam discovered in Bangalore, India. Buyer beware…click here….

Shulman and Wells 1997: Acute fluoride toxicity from ingesting home-use dental products in children, birth to 6 years of age

Shulman, J.D., and L.M. Wells. Acute fluoride toxicity from ingesting home-use dental products in children, birth to 6 years of age. J Public Health Dent. 1997 Summer;57(3):150-8.

OBJECTIVE: This paper analyzes reports to the American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC) of suspected overingestion of fluoride by children younger than 6 years of age between 1989 and 1994, and estimates the probably toxic amounts of various home-use fluoride products in children younger than 6 years of age.

METHODS: Annual incidence rates of reported fluoride exposures attributed to dietary supplements, toothpaste, and rinses were calculated. Probably toxic amounts of each product were calculated using the frequently cited dose of 5 mg/kg.

RESULTS: Children younger than 6 years of age accounted for more than 80 percent of reports of suspected overingestion. While the outcomes were generally not serious, several hundred children were treated at health care facilities each year. A 10 kg child who ingests 50 mg fluoride (10.1 g 1.1% NaF gel; 32.7 g 0.63% SnF2 gel; 33.3 g 1,500 ppm F toothpaste; 50 g 1,000 ppm F toothpaste; and 221 mL 0.05% NaF rinse) will have ingested a probably toxic dose.

CONCLUSIONS: Overingestion of fluoride products in the home is preventable. Dentists and other health care providers should educate parents and child care providers about the importance of keeping fluoride products out of reach of children. Manufacturers should be encouraged by the ADA and the FDA to use child-resistant packaging for all fluoride products intended for use in the home.

Buzalaf and Whitford 2011: Fluoride metabolism

Buzalaf, M.A., and G.M. Whitford. Fluoride metabolism. Monogr Oral Sci. 2011;22:20-36. Epub 2011 Jun 23.

Knowledge of all aspects of fluoride metabolism is essential for comprehending the biological effects of this ion in humans as well as to drive the prevention (and treatment) of fluoride toxicity. Several aspects of fluoride metabolism – including gastric absorption, distribution and renal excretion – are pH-dependent because the coefficient of permeability of lipid bilayer membranes to hydrogen fluoride (HF) is 1 million times higher than that of F(-). This means that fluoride readily crosses cell membranes as HF, in response to a pH gradient between adjacent body fluid compartments. After ingestion, plasma fluoride levels increase rapidly due to the rapid absorption from the stomach, an event that is pH-dependent and distinguishes fluoride from other halogens and most other substances. The majority of fluoride not absorbed from the stomach will be absorbed from the small intestine. In this case, absorption is not pH-dependent. Fluoride not absorbed will be excreted in feces. Peak plasma fluoride concentrations are reached within 20-60 min following ingestion. The levels start declining thereafter due to two main reasons: uptake in calcified tissues and excretion in urine. Plasma fluoride levels are not homeostatically regulated and vary according to the levels of intake, deposition in hard tissues and excretion of fluoride. Many factors can modify the metabolism and effects of fluoride in the organism, such as chronic and acute acid-base disturbances, hematocrit, altitude, physical activity, circadian rhythm and hormones, nutritional status, diet, and genetic predisposition. These will be discussed in detail in this review.

Click here for the full paper (fee).