Daily Archives: January 22, 2012

Helena, Montana water rights fight goes on….

Half of Tenmile Creek water may be lost if judge’s ruling holds…..making for a good ole’ water rights brawl in Montana…. click here….

Joshi et al 2010: Skeletal fluorsis due to excessive tea and toothpaste consumption

Joshi S, Hlaing T, Whitford GM, Compston JE. Skeletal fluorosis due to excessive tea and toothpaste consumption. Osteoporos Int. 2011 Sep;22(9):2557-60. Epub 2010 Oct 9.

Clinical Biochemistry, Addenbrookes Hospital NHS Trust, Cambridge, UK. supriya.joshi@addenbrookes.nhs.uk

We describe the case of a 53-year-old woman who presented with a metatarsal fracture and was found to have a bone mineral density (BMD) T-score of +11 in the lumbar spine and +7.6 in the hip. Subsequent investigation revealed very high serum, urine and tissue fluoride levels, associated with excessive tea and toothpaste consumption. The case emphasises the need to exclude fluorosis in individuals with unexpectedly high BMD levels.

Click here for the full article (fee).


Whitford 2011: Acute toxicity of ingested fluoride

Whitford, GM. Acute toxicity of ingested fluoride. Monogr Oral Sci. 2011;22:66-80. Epub 2011 Jun 23.

Department of Oral Biology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, USA. gwhitfor@mcg.edu

This chapter discusses the characteristics and treatment of acute fluoride toxicity as well as the most common sources of overexposure, the doses that cause acute toxicity, and factors that can influence the clinical outcome. Cases of serious systemic toxicity and fatalities due to acute exposures are now rare, but overexposures causing toxic signs and symptoms are not. The clinical course of systemic toxicity from ingested fluoride begins with gastric signs and symptoms, and can develop with alarming rapidity. Treatment involves minimizing absorption by administering a solution containing calcium, monitoring and managing plasma calcium and potassium concentrations, acid-base status, and supporting vital functions. Approximately 30,000 calls to US poison control centers concerning acute exposures in children are made each year, most of which involve temporary gastrointestinal effects, but others require medical treatment. The most common sources of acute overexposures today are dental products – particularly dentifrices because of their relatively high fluoride concentrations, pleasant flavors, and their presence in non-secure locations in most homes. For example, ingestion of only 1.8 ounces of a standard fluoridated dentifrice (900-1,100 mg/kg) by a 10-kg child delivers enough fluoride to reach the ‘probably toxic dose’ (5 mg/kg body weight). Factors that may influence the clinical course of an overexposure include the chemical compound (e.g. NaF, MFP, etc.), the age and acid-base status of the individual, and the elapsed time between exposure and the initiation of treatment. While fluoride has well-established beneficial dental effects and cases of serious toxicity are now rare, the potential for toxicity requires that fluoride-containing materials be handled and stored with the respect they deserve.

 Click here to obtain the chapter (fee).

Machoy-Mokrzynska 2004: [Fluorine as a factor in premature aging.]

Machoy-Mokrzyńska A.  [Fluorine as a factor in premature aging].  Ann Acad Med Stetin. 2004;50 Suppl 1:9-13. [Article in Polish]

Katedra Farmakologii, Pomorskiej Akademii Medycznej w Szczecinie, al. Powstańców Wlkp. 72, 70-111 Szczecin.

Abstract: The use of fluorine compounds in various areas of medicine, particularly in dentistry, as well as in agriculture and industry became very popular in the second half of the 20th century. Fluorine owed this widespread acceptance to observations that its compounds stimulate ossification processes and reduce the prevalence of caries. Unfortunately, growing expectations overshadowed the truth regarding interactions of fluoride on the molecular level. The fact was often ignored that fluoride is toxic, even though laboratory data stood for a careful approach to the benefits of usage. Excessive exposure to fluoride may lead to acute poisoning, hyperemia, cerebral edema, and degeneration of the liver and kidneys. Acute intoxication through the airways produces coughing, choking, and chills, followed by fever and pulmonary edema. Concentrated solutions of fluorine compounds produce difficult to heal necrotic lesions. In spite of these dramatic symptoms, acute intoxications are relatively rare; the more common finding is chronic intoxication attributable to the universal presence of fluorine compounds in the environment. The first noticeable signs of excessive exposure to fluoride in contaminated water, air, and food products include discolorations of the enamel. Dental fluorosis during tooth growth and loss of dentition in adulthood are two consequences of chronic intoxication with fluorine compounds. Abnormalities in mineralization processes affect by and large the osteoarticular system and are associated with changes in the density and structure of the bone presenting as irregular mineralization of the osteoid. Fluorine compounds also act on the organic part of supporting tissues, including collagen and other proteins, and on cells of the connective tissue. These interactions reduce the content of collagen proteins, modify the structure and regularity of collagen fibers, and induce mineralization of collagen. Interactions with cells produce transient activation of osteoblasts, stimulate fibroblasts to produce collagenase, and trigger toxic reactions in osteocytes and chondrocytes of trabecular bone. Growing deformations of the skeleton reduce mobility and result in permanent crippling of the patient. Fluoride increases the mass of non-collagen proteins such as proteoglycans and glucosaminoglycans, accelerating skin aging even though protein biosynthesis is generally suppressed. The final outcome includes progressive vascular lesions and disorders of energy metabolism in muscles. In conclusions, the use of fluoride, particularly by dentists and pediatricians, must be controlled and adapted to individual needs. It is worth remembering that fluoride: is the cause of disability due to bone deformations and abnormalities in the musculoskeletal system; reduces the incidence of caries but do not protect against tooth loss; exerts an adverse effect of metabolic processes in the skin; accelerates calcification of vessels and thus reduces their elasticity; inhibits bioenergetic reactions, in particular oxidative phosphorylation, reducing physical activity of muscles. These findings suggest that fluorine may be yet another factor in accelerated aging and revive the dispute started more than two and half thousand years ago whether aging is a physiologic or pathologic process. The understanding of factors modifying the process of aging is the basis for preventive measures aimed at extending life and maintaining full psychosocial activity.


Global temperatures are dropping…..must be global warming?

The AMSU satellite recorded a global temperature of 251.858K on January 19, 2012.  This was the coldest of any day since at least 2002. Click here or image below for source.

Prystupa 2011: Fluorine-a current literature review

Prystupa, J. Fluorine–a current literature review. An NRC and ATSDR based review of safety standards for exposure to fluorine and fluorides. Toxicol Mech Methods. 2011 Feb;21(2):103-70.

BACKGROUND: A review of the literature of the element fluorine and its bonded-form, fluoride, was undertaken. Generally regarded as safe, an expanding body of literature reveals that fluoride’s toxicity has been unappreciated, un-scrutinized, and hidden for over 70 years. The context for the literature search and review was an environmental climate-change study, which demonstrated widespread fluoride contamination by smokestack emissions from coal-fired electricity-generating plants. The objective of this review is to educate and inform regarding the ubiquitous presence and harmful nature of this now ever-present corrosive and reactive toxin.

METHODS: Methods include examination of national health agency reviews, primarily the National Research Council (NRC), Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry (ATSDR), standard medical toxicology references, text books, as well as reports and documents from both private and public research as well as consumer-based NGOs. Study criteria were chosen for relevancy to the subject of the toxicity of fluoride.

RESULTS: Fluoride is the extreme electron scavenger, the most corrosive of all elements, as well as the most-reactive. Fluoride appears to attack living tissues, via several mechanisms. Fluoride renders strong evidence that it is a non-biological chemical, demonstrating no observed beneficial function or role in organic chemistry, beyond use as a pesticide or insecticide. Fluorine has a strong role to play in industry, having been utilized extensively in metals, plastics, paints, aluminium, steel, and uranium production.

CONCLUSION: Due to its insatiable appetite for calcium, fluorine and fluorides likely represent a form of chemistry that is incompatible with biological tissues and organ system functions. Based on an analysis of the affects of fluoride demonstrated consistently in the literature, safe levels have not been determined nor standardized. Mounting evidence presents conflicting value to its presence in biological settings and applications. Evidence examined in this review of the literature, and specifically the recent report by the National Research Council (NRC), offer strong support for an immediate reconsideration concerning risk vs benefit. Consensus recommendations from several sources are presented.

Aschengrau et al 2011: Occurrence of mental illness following prenatal and early childhood exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water: a retrospective cohort study

A typical epidemiological study with the usual limitations which are never mentioned……the math is run until something can be claimed….published in a journal where a coauthor is an editor….picked up by the India press (click here)….when it is impossible to know what the PCE exposure was….it looks like this study gets us nowhere….

Ann Aschengrau, Janice M Weinberg, Patricia A Janulewicz, Megan E Romano, Lisa G Gallagher, Michael R Winter, Brett R Martin, Veronica M Vieira, Thomas F Webster, Roberta F White and David M Ozonoff. Occurrence of mental illness following prenatal and early childhood exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water: a retrospective cohort study. Environmental Health 2012, 11:2 doi:10.1186/1476-069X-11-2; Published: 20 January 2012


While many studies of adults with solvent exposure have shown increased risks of anxiety and depressive disorders, there is little information on the impact of prenatal and early childhood exposure on the subsequent risk of mental illness. This retrospective cohort study examined whether early life exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE)-contaminated drinking water influenced the occurrence of depression, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and schizophrenia among adults from Cape Cod, Massachusetts.


A total of 1,512 subjects born between 1969 and 1983 were studied, including 831 subjects with both prenatal and early childhood PCE exposure and 547 unexposed subjects. Participants completed questionnaires to gather information on mental illnesses, demographic and medical characteristics, other sources of solvent exposure, and residences from birth through 1990. PCE exposure originating from the vinyl-liner of water distribution pipes was assessed using water distribution system modeling software that incorporated a leaching and transport algorithm.


No meaningful increases in risk ratios (RR) for depression were observed among subjects with prenatal and early childhood exposure (RR: 1.1, 95% CI: 0.9-1.4). However, subjects with prenatal and early childhood exposure had a 1.8-fold increased risk of bipolar disorder (N=36 exposed cases, 95% CI: 0.9-1.4), a 1.5-fold increased risk post-traumatic stress disorder (N=47 exposed cases, 95% CI: 0.9-2.5), and a 2.1-fold increased risk of schizophrenia (N=3 exposed cases, 95% CI: 0.2-20.0). Further increases in the risk ratio were observed for bipolar disorder (N=18 exposed cases, RR; 2.7, 95% CI: 1.3-5.6) and post-traumatic stress disorder (N=18 exposed cases, RR: 1.7, 95% CI: 0.9-3.2) among subjects with the highest exposure levels.


The results of this study provide evidence against an impact of early life exposure to PCE on the risk of depression. In contrast, the results provide support for an impact of early life exposure on the risk of bipolar disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder. The number of schizophrenia cases was too small to draw reliable conclusions. These findings should be confirmed in investigations of other similarly exposed populations.

Click here for the full study (free).