As an American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) member I receive a periodic email of news….on Jan 20, 2012 the email included the following appeal:
“Will Congress act on ASCE’s priorities this year?
Several infrastructure-related programs awaiting renewal
<http://app.message.asce.org/e/er.aspx?s=1360&lid=3116&elq=9fe7fe8e9ae849bc8d458b15fd0c75c5> <http://app.message.asce.org/e/er.aspx?s=1360&lid=1970&elq=9fe7fe8e9ae849bc8d458b15fd0c75c5> CongressENews <http://app.message.asce.org/e/er?s=1360&lid=8557&elq=9fe7fe8e9ae849bc8d458b15fd0c75c5>Last year, the 112th Congress barely moved on the issues that ASCE has designated as legislative priorities for civil engineering, with several programs receiving temporary extensions rather than full reauthorizations. As Congress returns for its second session, leaders say they intend to make legislation on key infrastructure programs a top priority. ASCE’s Government Relations office has been closely monitoring developments and urging lawmakers to act on several fronts. These include multi-year reauthorizations for surface transportation programs, the Federal Aviation Administration, the Clean Water Act, the Dam Safety Act, the Water Resources Development Act, the Natural Hazards Risk Reduction Act, and the K-12 science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education provisions of the Elementary and Secondary Education “No Child Left Behind” Act. Find out where things stand on each of these priorities, what may come next, and what ASCE wants to see happen in Government Relations’ blog, Our Failing Infrastructure <http://app.message.asce.org/e/er?s=1360&lid=8557&elq=9fe7fe8e9ae849bc8d458b15fd0c75c5>. You can have a direct influence on what happens by coming to Washington for ASCE’s annual spring Legislative Fly-In <http://app.message.asce.org/e/er?s=1360&lid=7849&elq=9fe7fe8e9ae849bc8d458b15fd0c75c5>, March 20-22. Find out what’s involved and apply by the deadline of this Tuesday, Jan. 24.
Welcome back, Fred!”
Yes, welcome back I am sure……with the country now having no money, borrowing $180,000,000+ every HOUR……what will ASCE and its power brokers do for the good of the financial stability of the United States? Or will they just beg like everyone else, and advocate for more government. Such folks and others who do nothing in effect believe “socialized” infrastructure spending is good (they just want their share of the dole)…..continuing to give up personal, institutional, and societal freedom for federal dependency and federal central control….which is unsustainable at best….I am not arguing for no government role….but unless such groups like ASCE initiate change for the good of civil engineering as well as the country….not just self serving drivel….the country will continue to slide….
A healthy sustainable economy is a prerequisite to sustainable infrastructure…..increasing federal debt at this time only makes the problem worse….
Camargo, J.A. Fluoride toxicity to aquatic organisms: a review. Chemosphere. 2003 Jan;50(3):251-64.
Departamento Interuniversitario de Ecología, Edificio de Ciencias, Universidad de Alcalá, Alcalá de Henares, Madrid E-28871, Spain. email@example.com
Published data on the toxicity of fluoride (F-) to algae, aquatic plants, invertebrates and fishes are reviewed. Aquatic organisms living in soft waters may be more adversely affected by fluoride pollution than those living in hard or seawaters because the bioavailability of fluoride ions is reduced with increasing water hardness. Fluoride can either inhibit or enhance the population growth of algae, depending upon fluoride concentration, exposure time and algal species. Aquatic plants seem to be effective in removing fluoride from contaminated water under laboratory and field conditions. In aquatic animals, fluoride tends to be accumulated in the exoskeleton of invertebrates and in the bone tissue of fishes. The toxic action of fluoride resides in the fact that fluoride ions act as enzymatic poisons, inhibiting enzyme activity and, ultimately, interrupting metabolic processes such as glycolysis and synthesis of proteins. Fluoride toxicity to aquatic invertebrates and fishes increases with increasing fluoride concentration, exposure time and water temperature, and decreases with increasing intraspecific body size and water content of calcium and chloride. Freshwater invertebrates and fishes, especially net-spinning caddisfly larvae and upstream-migrating adult salmons, appear to be more sensitive to fluoride toxicity than estuarine and marine animals. Because, in soft waters with low ionic content, a fluoride concentration as low as 0.5 mg F-/l can adversely affect invertebrates and fishes, safe levels below this fluoride/l concentration are recommended in order to protect freshwater animals from fluoride pollution.
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Liu JL, Xia T, Yu YY, Sun XZ, Zhu Q, He W, Zhang M, Wang A. [The dose-effect relationship of water fluoride levels and renal damage in children]. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 2005 May;34(3):287-8. [Article in Chinese]
Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China.
OBJECTIVE: To explore the dose-effect relationship of water fluoride levels and renal damage in children and observe the difference of renal function between high-loaded fluoride people and dental fluorosis people in the same water fluoride level region.
METHODS: 210 children were divided into seven groups in term of drinking water fluoride levels and whether they suffered from dental fluorosis. Fluoride concentrations in urine and serum and activities of urine NAG and gamma-GT were determined.
RESULTS: The urine and serum fluoride of high-loaded fluoride people and dental fluorosis people increased compared with control, moreover fluoride contents in urine and serum increased gradually with the increase of fluoride level in drinking water. Urine NAG and gamma-GT activities significantly increased in dental fluorosis people from area of 2.58 mg/L fluoride in drinking water and in those two groups from area of 4.51 mg/L fluoride in drinking water. Moreover, there existed an obvious dose-effect relationship between the drinking water fluoride concentration and NAG and gamma-GT activity.
CONCLUSION: Over 2.0 mg/L fluoride in drinking water can cause renal damage in children, and the damage degree increases with the drinking water fluoride content. Renal damage degree is not related to whether the children suffered from dental fluorosis and mainly due to water fluoride concentration.
Eren E, Ozturk M, Mumcu EF, Canatan D. Fluorosis and its hematological effects. Toxicol Ind Health. 2005 Nov;21(10):255-8.
Department of Pediatrics, Suleyman Demirel University Medical School, Isparta, Turkey. firstname.lastname@example.org
Abstract: Although it has been reported that fluoride ingestion has no influence on various indices of hematopoiesis, some research has been published that excessive fluoride developed anemia and eosinophilia of leukocytes. Isparta is situated on the lake region of Turkey where fluorosis is endemic. Our aim was to explore the hematological effects in rats induced by fluoride. In this study, Wistar-Albino rats were used, divided into two groups as control and fluorized. While the control group was administered commercial water (including 0.07 ppm fluoride), the fluorized group was administered 100 ppm fluoride in commercial drinking water for four months. At the end of four months, hematological indices (Hb, Hct, MCV, MCH, RDW, RBC, WBC, and platelet counts) were measured. In addition, bone marrow samples were investigated. Mean leukocyte counts (WBC) in the control group and fluorized group were 7.07 (2.62-12.25) and 2.76 (3.13-5.24)x 10(3)/mm3, respectively. We observed displastic changes on granulocytes in the bone marrow samples of the fluorized group. Although there were significant statistical changes in WBC, we did not determine red blood cell and platelet changes in the fluorized group.
Chandrajith, R., C.B. Dissanayake, T. Ariyanathna, H.M. Herath, and J.P. Padmasiri. Dose-dependent Na and Ca in fluoride-rich drinking water–another major cause of chronic renal failure in tropical arid regions. Sci Total Environ. 2011 Jan 15;409(4):671-5. Epub 2010 Nov 24.
Department of Geology, University of Peradeniya, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. email@example.com
Endemic occurrence of chronic kidney disease with unknown etiology is reported in certain parts of the north central dry zone of Sri Lanka and has become a new and emerging health issue. The disease exclusively occurs in settlements where groundwater is the main source of drinking water and is more common among low socio-economic groups, particularly among the farming community. Due to its remarkable geographic distribution and histopathological evidence, the disease is believed to be an environmentally induced problem. This paper describes a detailed hydrogeochemical study that has been carried out covering endemic and non-endemic regions. Higher fluoride levels are common in drinking water from both affected and non-affected regions, whereas Ca-bicarbonate type water is more common in the affected regions. In terms of the geochemical composition of drinking water, affected households were rather similar to control regions, but there is a large variation in the Na/Ca ratio within each of the two groups. Fluoride as shown in this study causes renal tubular damage. However it does not act alone and in certain instances it is even cytoprotective. The fine dividing line between cytotoxicity and cytoprotectivity of fluoride appears to be the effect of Ca(2+) and Na(+) of the ingested water on the F(-) metabolism. This study illustrates a third major cause (the other two being hypertension and diabetes) of chronic kidney diseases notably in tropical arid regions such as the dry zone of Sri Lanka.
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