Previoulsy unknown under sea volcanoes to be charted…..
“800 degree plumes of water, from generally small lava flows, are gushing into our seas right now, from the coast of Oregon to the South Pacific.”
Click here for an interesting discussion of under sea volcanoes….this just might affect ocean temperatures…..
Posted in Climate
Clouds in the stratosphere over the poles act to cool the stratosphere by adiabatic cooling, which is the cooling of air parcels as they rise and expand, rather than by ‘trapping heat’ below the clouds resulting in ‘radiative cooling’ of the stratosphere above. This finding contradicts a tenet of AGW theory…..click here for the discussion……
P. Achtert, M. Karlsson Andersson, F. Khosrawi, and J. Gumbel. On the linkage between tropospheric and Polar Stratospheric clouds in the Arctic as observed by space–borne lidar. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, 3791-3798 doi:10.5194/acp-12-3791-2012
Abstract. The type of Polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) as well as their temporal and spatial extent are important for the occurrence of heterogeneous reactions in the polar stratosphere. The formation of PSCs depends strongly on temperature. However, the mechanisms of the formation of solid PSCs are still poorly understood. Recent satellite studies of Antarctic PSCs have shown that their formation can be associated with deep-tropospheric clouds which have the ability to cool the lower stratosphere radiatively and/or adiabatically. In the present study, lidar measurements aboard the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite were used to investigate whether the formation of Arctic PSCs can be associated with deep-tropospheric clouds as well. Deep-tropospheric cloud systems have a vertical extent of more than 6.5 km with a cloud top height above 7 km altitude. PSCs observed by CALIPSO during the Arctic winter 2007/2008 were classified according to their type (STS, NAT, or ice) and to the kind of underlying tropospheric clouds. Our analysis reveals that 172 out of 211 observed PSCs occurred in connection with tropospheric clouds. 72% of these 172 observed PSCs occurred above deep-tropospheric clouds. We also find that the type of PSC seems to be connected to the characteristics of the underlying tropospheric cloud system. During the Arctic winter 2007/2008 PSCs consisting of ice were mainly observed in connection with deep-tropospheric cloud systems while no ice PSC was detected above cirrus. Furthermore, we find no correlation between the occurrence of PSCs and the top temperature of tropospheric clouds. Thus, our findings suggest that Arctic PSC formation is connected to adiabatice cooling, i.e. dynamic effects rather than radiative cooling.
Click here for the full study.
Posted in Climate
The Santa Margarita Water District is Orange County, California’s second largest water district. Like others, it must rely almost exclusively on imported water because it has no major local supply source. Click here for an essay by Charley Wilson, the district Director, on what they are doing to plan for the future….
Desalination of seawater may prove to be the longterm solution for water supply to Beijing within 3 years…..click here….
Click here for an update on the proposed settlement agreement between Syngenta and community water systems…..Below are relevant details:
- Syngenta would pay $105 million to pay the claims of the estimated 2000 CWSs who have experienced atrazine contamination, costs and attorneys fees.
- The settlement resolves the claims of CWSs raised in these lawsuits. It will have no impact on any consumer’s ability to bring an action for personal injury as a result of ingestion of atrazine. It will also not prevent a CWS from bringing a lawsuit in connection with a point-source spill or against a farmer or applicator who used atrazine other than in accordance with the label instructions.
- Any CWS that does not want to be bound to the terms of the settlement has until August 27 to exclude itself.
- Every CWS that has ever found a measurable level of atrazine in its raw or finished water is eligible for payment.
- Each CWS’s share will be determined based on their historical atrazine contamination levels, frequency of atrazine contamination, and population served.
- Generally, CWSs that processed more water or frequently had high concentrations of atrazine will get more money; CWSs that processed less water or whose atrazine contamination was sporadic or limited will get less money.
- All of the $105 million will be distributed – none will revert to Syngenta.
- Public records and other data available to Plaintiffs’ attorneys show that approximately 2000 CWSs have detected atrazine in their water.
- Each of these systems will receive direct mail notice of the settlement.
- Additionally, notice of the settlement will be published in three magazines that are widely read by those responsible for managing potentially-affected CWSs.
- CWSs will have all summer, until August 27, to test their water and submit their claims.
- To make a claim, a CWS will go to a settlement website (atrazinesettlement.com) that already contains all atrazine test results obtained by Plaintiffs’ attorneys, confirm its accuracy, and click a button to submit its claim. If the CWS has additional testing results, it can upload those test results through the website.
Here we go again….the same old arguments presented for Milwaukee continuing to add fluoride to drinking water. The CDC empire continues to strike back to keep the big government status quo….click here….fluoride hazards are air brushed out of the picture.
The Jedi will ultimately prevail against the empire to have fluoride addition to drinking water discontinued….it may take time to stop, but then, it took many attempts to destroy the empire death star!
As expected, the so called public health empire strikes back defending the addition of fluoride, saying the there is no reason to stop adding it. Click here…..their primary interest is in defending the status quo….
The assumption in the story above is that fluoride should be added unless it can be proven to be harmfull. In reality, there is no reason to add it to drinking water in the first place. Addition of fluoride has not been proven to benefit any particular citizen. Statements that fluoride in drinking water is beneficial are based on outdated epidemiology studies.
As citizens become more informed, addition of fluoride to drinking water will end.