Fabbricino M, d’Antonio L. Use of solar radiation for continuous water disinfection in isolated areas. Environ. Technol. Volume 33, Issue 5, 539-44. 2012.
This study involved investigation of solar water disinfection in continuously working treatment plants with the aim of producing safe drinking water in isolated areas. Results were obtained from experimental work carried out on a pilot plant operating in different configurations. The use of a simple device to increase solar radiation intensity (solar concentrator) was tested, with results showing that it facilitated better performance. A comparison between transparent and black-painted glass reactors was also made, showing no difference between the two casings. Further, the effect of an increase in water temperature was analysed in detail. Temperature was found to play an important role in the disinfection process, even in cases of limited solar radiation intensities, although a synergistic effect of water heating and solar radiation for effective microbial inactivation was confirmed. Reactor design is also discussed, highlighting the importance of having a plug flow to avoid zones that do not contribute to the overall effectiveness of the process.
The US Environmental Protection Agency is now using drones to spy on Americans…….No, this is not a joke. Click here for more…..
One of the best kept secrets……the solar industry is one of the largest emitters of hexafluoroethane (C2F6), nitrogen trifluoride (NF3), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)……these gases have much more “greenhouse” potential than CO2….so solar panels should be banned, right? Click here for a full analysis….as well as more green illusions.
Posted in Climate
Earth was warmer in the past….than the present….
Mensing, S., Korfmacher, J., Minckley, T., Musselman, R. A 15,000 year record of vegetation and climate change from a treeline lake in the Rocky Mountains, Wyoming, USA. The Holocene July 2012 vol. 22 no. 7 739-748
Future climate projections predict warming at high elevations that will impact treeline species, but complex topographic relief in mountains complicates ecologic response, and we have a limited number of long-term studies examining vegetation change related to climate. In this study, pollen and conifer stomata were analyzed from a 2.3 m sediment core extending to 15,330 cal. yr BP recovered from a treeline lake in the Rocky Mountains of Wyoming. Both pollen and stomata record a sequence of vegetation and climate change similar in most respects to other regional studies, with sagebrush steppe and lowered treeline during the Late Pleistocene, rapid upward movement of treeline beginning about 11,500 cal. yr BP, treeline above modern between ~9000 and 6000 cal. yr BP, and then moving downslope ~5000 cal. yr BP, reaching modern limits by ~3000 cal. yr BP. Between 6000 and 5000 cal. yr BP sediments become increasingly organic and sedimentation rates increase. We interpret this as evidence for lower lake levels during an extended dry period with warmer summer temperatures and treeline advance. The complex topography of the Rocky Mountains makes it challenging to identify regional patterns associated with short term climatic variability, but our results contribute to gaining a better understanding of past ecologic responses at high elevation sites.
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Posted in Climate