Perhaps the reason discontinuation of fluoride in this study had no effect on caries prevalance is because water fluoridation is not effective or is insignificant…..
Burt BA, Keels MA, Heller KE.The effects of a break in water fluoridation on the development of dental caries and fluorosis. J Dent Res. 2000 Feb;79(2):761-9.
Abstract: Durham, NC, fluoridated since 1962, had an 11-month cessation of fluoridation between September, 1990, and August, 1991. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of this break on the development of caries and fluorosis in children. Study participants were continuously-resident children in Kindergarten through Grade 5 in Durham’s elementary schools. There were 1696 children, 81.4% of those eligible, for whom a questionnaire was completed and clinical data recorded. Age cohorts were defined by a child’s age at the time that fluoridation ceased. Caries was recorded in children in the Birth Cohort through Cohort 3, and fluorosis for children in Cohorts 1 through 5. Caries was assessed in the primary first and second molars according to the decayed-filled index; fluorosis on the labial surfaces of the upper permanent central and lateral incisors was assessed by the Thylstrup-Fejerskov (TF) index. Mother’s education was associated with caries; higher education of the mother had an odds ratio of 0.53 (95% CI 0.40, 0.76) for caries in the child. No cohort effects could be discerned for caries. Overall prevalence of fluorosis was 44%. Prevalence in Cohorts 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 was 39.8%, 32.3%, 33.0%, 62.3%, and 57.1%, respectively. These cohort differences remained statistically significant in regression analysis. It was concluded that while the break had little effect on caries, dental fluorosis is sensitive to even small changes in fluoride exposure from drinking water, and this sensitivity is greater at 1 to 3 years of age than at 4 or 5 years.
Posted in Fluoride
Fluoridation was not recommended in this study…..
Schweinsberg F, Netuschil L, Hahn T. Drinking water fluoridation and caries prophylaxis: with special consideration of the experience in the former East Germany. Zentralbl Hyg Umweltmed. 1992 Dec;193(4):295-317.
Drinking water fluoridation for caries prophylaxis is not a means of primary prevention: i.e., avoidance of sugar and microorganisms in the oral cavity; but rather a means of secondary prevention: e.g., prevention of bacterial production of carboxylic acid from sugar, and therapy: e.g., enhancement of enamel resistance to demineralization by incorporation of fluoride in remineralization of the enamel surface. Currently available epidemiologic studies on the effects of drinking water fluoridation reveal: reduction of the incidence of caries, particularly in children no detrimental health effects; cosmetically undesirable dental fluorosis may occur, however. Nevertheless, introduction of drinking water fluoridation in Germany is not recommendable because of: the greater effectiveness of primary caries prevention, the acceptance of which is reduced, however, by drinking water fluoridation the at least equal prophylactic effect of fluoride via other routes, e.g. via toothpaste the narrow range between beneficial and detrimental dosage the avoidance of fluoride-enriched waste water the prerogative of minimal manipulation of drinking water content.
“The three schemes sanctioned by the state government are water supply to Alwar city from Chambal river, upgradation of distribution system, 24/7 water supply in urban areas of Tijara, Behror, Rajgarh and augmentation of urban water supply scheme at Bhiwadi. “
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Looks like more political intimidation? Click here for news coverage…..
Posted in EPA
A very interesting hypothesis indeed, but only that at this point….a hypothesis.
Brewer, G.J. Copper toxicity in Alzheimer’s disease: Cognitive loss from ingestion of inorganic copper. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2012 Jun 4.
Abstract: In this review I present the hypothesis that a toxic substance, inorganic copper, ingested from drinking water and vitamin/mineral supplements containing inorganic copper, is at least partially causal of the epidemic of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) we are seeing in developed countries. I set the stage for this hypothesis by pointing out that the epidemic is a new disease phenomenon coinciding temporally with the use of copper plumbing in developed countries. The evidence is good that AD was nonexistent or rare in the 1800s and early 1900s, and the arguments that elderly people did not exist in those times, or that AD was simply attributed to senility, are refuted. The web of evidence tying ingestion of inorganic copper as a causal factor in AD is strong, and includes AD animal model data where trace amounts of inorganic copper in the drinking water markedly worsened AD, human studies where ingestion of copper supplements, along with a high fat diet, is associated with a marked loss of cognition, human studies showing a markedly higher mortality in elderly women ingesting copper supplements, as well as other data. It is likely that a high fat diet works in conjunction with ingestion of inorganic copper to increase the risk of AD. It is clear that some factor toxic to the brain is present in the environment in developed countries, but not undeveloped countries, and is a major risk factor for AD. I believe that that toxic factor is ingestion of inorganic copper.