Michael Czajka. Systemic Effects of Fluoridation. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine. Volume 27, Number 3, 2012.
Abstract: This review article is written from a food chemistry perspective. It focuses on the systemic effects of fluoride (rather than the effects of fluoride on the teeth) sincefluoride research concentrates largely on the teeth to the virtual exclusion of systemic effects. This is surprising given that fluoride is a known systemic toxin. About 400 million people (-6% of the world’s population) drink fluoridated water. The effect of fluoride on the teeth is topical (directly on the teeth) and not systemic, so drinking fluoridated water has no beneflt. Fluoride is a lipid soluble neurotoxin and enzyme poison. Fluoride accumulates in the pineal gland (9,000 ppm on average) and bone. Dental fluorosis is a marker for skeletalfluorosis. At l ppm 32 % of US children have dental fluorosis. At 1 ppm some sections of the population (e.g. infants) will ingest too much fluoride. Unfluoridated and fluoridated countries have similar rates of tooth decay. Given thatfluoridation of water supplies is not necessary to maintain a reduction in tooth decay and that the side effects of ingestion are undesirable, the practice is likely to come under increasing scrutiny. More studies on the systemic effects of fluoride are urgently required.
Posted in Fluoride
A. Millard-Ball. Do city climate plans reduce emissions? Journal of Urban Economics. Volume 71, Issue 3, May 2012, Pages 289–311.
More than 600 local governments in the US are developing climate action plans that lay out specific measures to reduce emissions from municipal operations, households and firms. To date, however, it is unclear whether these plans are being implemented or have any causal effects on emissions. Using data from California, I provide the first quantitative analysis of the impacts of climate plans. I find that cities with climate plans have had far greater success in implementing strategies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions than their counterparts without such plans. For example, they have more green buildings, spend more on pedestrian and bicycle infrastructure, and have implemented more programs to divert waste from methane-generating landfills. I find little evidence, however, that climate plans play any causal role in this success. Rather, citizens’ environmental preferences appear to be a more important driver of both the adoption of climate plans and the pursuit of specific emission reduction measures. Thus, climate plans are largely codifying outcomes that would have been achieved in any case.
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Posted in Climate
“Veolia Water India, a Veolia Water subsidiary, has been awarded a contract by the Delhi Jal Board, the water and wastewater authority for the Indian capital, to manage drinking water production and distribution infrastructure, as well as the water department, for the Nangloi neighborhood in the west of New Delhi.”
For the 15-year duration of the contract, the volume of sales for the joint venture is expected to be in the vicinity of €282 million.
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