Léa Maria Bezerra de Menezes, Maria Cristina Volpato, Pedro Luiz Rosalen, and Jaime Aparecido Cury. Bone as a biomarker of acute fluoride toxicity. Forensic Science International, Volume 137, Issues 2–3, 26 November 2003, Pages 209–214.
Abstract: The use of bone as a biomarker for chronic and acute exposure to fluoride salts has been suggested, but there are no data published about its use to evaluate lethal intoxication. One hundred and sixty rats were divided into eight groups that received a single oral intubation dose from 0 (control) to 90 mg F/kg as NaF. The animals’ time of death was recorded and their femurs were removed for fluoride analysis. Acid-soluble fluoride was determined in the whole bone and on the surface (periosteal), using an ion specific electrode. The data showed a statistically significant relationship between fluoride dose and the number of deaths (P<0.0001). A statistically significant relationship was also found between fluoride dose and fluoride concentration ([F]) in either the whole femur (P<0.0017), on the surface (P<0.0001) or for the ratio periosteal [F]/whole [F] (P<0.0001). However, the [F] on the femur surface was more closely correlated with mortality than that in the whole bone, showing statistically significant differences among the lethal doses and control (P<0.05). The data suggest that the ratio [F] periosteal bone/[F] whole bone, is a biomarker for acute fluoridetoxicity.