BEREŞESCU, LIANA (firstname.lastname@example.org), PĂCURAR, MARIANA. EVALUAREA EFICIENŢEI UNOR MĂSURI DE PROFILAXIE A CARIEI DENTARE. [EVALUATING THE EFFICIENCY OF CERTAIN PREVENTIVE MEASURES FOR DENTAL CARIES.] Acta Medica Transilvanica, dec2012, Vol. 17 Issue 4, p291-293.
Introduction: Developed countries have shown a remarkable decline in the prevalence of dental caries due to the application of several preventive measures.
Objective: Evaluating the efficiency of pit and fissure sealing and topical fluoridation. Material and method: 395 children were divided into 3 groups, all of them received oral hygiene instruction, two groups benefited from pit and fissure sealings and the third group received local fluoridation, too. The assessment of the efficiency was made based on DMF index.
Results: DMF index showed statistically significant differences between the group that received oral hygiene instruction and the other two groups that received specific prophylactic measures.
Discussion: The study confirmed the effectiveness of sealants, but not the caries-preventive effect of fluoride.
Conclusions: The evolution of DMF index demonstrates the effectiveness of applying pit and fissure sealants.
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Wilhelm, B., Arnaud, F., Sabatier, P., Crouzet, C., Brisset, E., Chaumillon, E., Disnar, J.-R., Guiter, F., Malet, E., Reyss, J.-L., Tachikawa, K., Bard, E. and Delannoy, J.-J. 2012. 1400 years of extreme precipitation patterns over the Mediterranean French Alps and possible forcing mechanisms. Quaternary Research 78: 1-12.
Investigation of Lake Allos sediments revealed ~ 160 graded layers, interpreted as flood deposits, over the last 1400 yr. Comparisons with records of historic floods support the interpretation of flood deposits and suggest that most recorded flood events are the result of intense meso-scale precipitation events. As there is no evidence for any major changes in erosion processes in the catchment since the Medieval Warm Period (MWP), we interpret the Allos record in terms of repeated intense precipitation events over the last millennium, with a low flood frequency during the MWP and more frequent and more intense events during the Little Ice Age. This interpretation is consistent with the pattern of increasingly humid conditions in the northwestern Mediterranean region. This long-term trend is superimposed on high frequency oscillations that correlate with solar activity and autumnal North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Finally, a comparison of flood records across the northwestern Mediterranean region showed that intense precipitation events in Allos (east of the Rhône Valley) were out of phase with events in the Cévennes (west of the Rhône) but in phase with events in eastern Spain. Supported by meteorological analyses, this suggests an oscillation in atmospheric circulation patterns over the northwestern Mediterranean.
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Posted in Climate
Tagged climate, France
“Wind turbines only last for ‘half as long as previously thought’, according to a new study. But even in their short lifespans, those turbines can do a lot of damage. Wind farms are devastating populations of rare birds and bats across the world, driving some to the point of extinction. Most environmentalists just don’t want to know. Because they’re so desperate to believe in renewable energy, they’re in a state of denial. But the evidence suggests that, this century at least, renewables pose a far greater threat to wildlife than climate change.”
Click here for the full article. I’ve been saying this for many years….perhaps the message is starting to sink in….
This study sends a clear message that poverty is the single greatest barrier to being able to gain access to safe drinking water. To improve access to safe drinking water, improve the economic conditions of the poor.
Yang H, Bain RE, Bartram J, Gundry S, Pedley S, Wright J. Water safety and inequality in access to drinking-water between rich and poor households. Environ Sci Technol. 2012 Dec 31.
While water and sanitation are now recognized as a human right by the United Nations, monitoring inequality in safe water access poses challenges. This study uses survey data to calculate household socio-economic-status (SES) indices in seven countries where national drinking-water quality surveys are available. These are used to assess inequalities in access as indicated by type of improved water source, use of safe water and a combination of these . In Bangladesh, arsenic exposure through drinking-water is not significantly related to SES (p=0.06) among households using tubewells, whereas in Peru, chlorine residual in piped systems varies significantly with SES (p<0.0001). In Ethiopia, Nicaragua and Nigeria, many poor households access non-piped improved sources, which may provide unsafe water, resulting in greater inequality of access to 'safe' water compared to 'improved' water sources. Concentration indices increased from 0.08 to 0.15, 0.10 to 0.14, and 0.24 to 0.26 respectively in these countries. There was minimal difference in Jordan and Tajikistan. Although the results are likely to be underestimates as they exclude individual-level inequalities, they show that use of a binary 'improved' / 'unimproved' categorization masks substantial inequalities. Future international monitoring programmes should take account inequality in access and safety.