Xiao, Feng, Matt F., Gulliver, John S. Mechanisms for removal of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) from drinking water by conventional and enhanced coagulation. Water Research, Jan2013, Vol. 47 Issue 1, p49-56
Abstract: Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are persistent organic pollutants that have been found to be ubiquitous in the environment. This article, for the first time, delineates removal areas of these polar compounds on a coagulation diagram that associates chemical conditions with different coagulation mechanisms. Variables considered were solution pH, coagulant dosage, coagulants (alum and ferric chloride), natural organic matter (NOM), initial turbidity, and flocculation time. The jar-test results show that conventional coagulation (alum dosage of 10–60 mg/L and final pH of 6.5–8.0) removed ≤20% of PFOS and PFOA. These chemicals tended to be removed better by enhanced coagulation at higher coagulant dosages (>60 mg/L) and (thus) lower final pH (4.5–6.5). A coagulation diagram was developed to define the coagulant dosage and solution pH for PFOS/PFOA removal. The results suggest that the primary PFOS/PFOA removal mechanism is adsorption to fine Al hydroxide flocs freshly formed during the initial stage of coagulation; increasing flocculation time from 2 to 90 min could not further improve PFOS and PFOA removals. Furthermore, the effect of NOM on PFOS/PFOA removal by coagulation was examined, and possible removal mechanisms were discussed.
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Lu X D, Cui LL, Ma Y, Zu RQ, Shen T, Li JQ, Yao JX, Shan J, Xie Q, Shi C, Zeng G. [A viral meningitis outbreak associated with Echo30 in drinking water]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2012 Oct;33(10):1067-71.
OBJECTIVE: To study the source of infection, the scope of epidemic and control measures in an outbreak involving students having symptoms as fever, dizziness, headache, vomiting and nausea.
METHODS: The suspected-case was defined as fever (armpit temperature ≥ 37°C) and with one or more of the following symptoms: dizziness, headache, vomiting and nausea, among students and teachers at school from Mar 1, 2012. Confirmed-case was among suspected case accompanied by both throat and rectal swabs enterovirus positive by RT-PCR. All the cases were collected through checking the medical records from 4 hospitals as well as through the absence records of students and teachers, from Mar 1, 2012. We conducted a case-control study with ratio of 1:2 and data on the exposures to water among students and teachers was collected prior to the illness. 27 cases’ throat and rectal swabs were collected and analyzed by RT-PCR and PCR sequence methods. 2 warm-water samples were collected for testing the counts on total bacteria and E. coli.
RESULTS: 103 students’ cases were identified in school L, with the attack rate as 4.6% (103/2255). Students from Grade three had the high attack rate as 18.1% (72/397) and 77.7% (80/103) of the cases located in the building with ‘multiple-functions’. Epidemic curve of the outbreak showed a pattern with continuous common source of infection. It seemed that the exposure to warm-water appeared to be the major risk factor (OR = 18.3, 95%CI: 2.0 – 169.5) together with the intake of un-boiled water (OR = 15.5, 95%CI: 1.7 – 141.8). Specimens from 27 students (81.5%, 22/27) were identified enterovirus positive by RT-PCR, and 7 of the 9 students were confirmed carrying Echo 30. Bacteria and coli were negative from the 2 warm-water samples.
CONCLUSION: This viral meningitis-outbreak was caused by Echo 30, with drinking water as the major risk factor.
Tsai SS, Yang CY. Trihalomethanes in drinking water and the risk of death from esophageal cancer: does hardness in drinking water matter? J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2013;76(2):120-30. doi: 10.1080/15287394.2013.738410.
The objectives of this study were to (1) examine the relationship between total trihalomethanes (TTHM) levels in public water supplies and risk of esophageal cancer occurrence and (2) determine whether calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) levels in drinking water modify the effects of TTHM on risk to develop esophageal cancer. A matched case-control study was used to investigate the relationship between the risk of death attributed to esophageal cancer and exposure to TTHM in drinking water in 53 municipalities in Taiwan. All esophageal cancer deaths in the 53 municipalities from 2006 through 2010 were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. Controls were deaths from other causes and were pair-matched to the cancer cases by gender, year of birth, and year of death. Each matched control was selected randomly from the set of possible controls for each cancer case. Data on TTHM levels in drinking water were collected from Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration. Information on the levels of Ca and Mg in drinking water was obtained from the Taiwan Water Supply Corporation. The municipality of residence for cancer cases and controls was presumed to be the source of the subject’s TTHM, Ca, and Mg exposure via drinking water. Relative to individuals whose TTHM exposure level <4.9 ppb, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for esophageal cancer was 1.02 (0.84-1.23) for individuals who resided in municipalities served by drinking water with a TTHM exposure ≥4.9 ppb. There was evidence of an interaction between drinking-water TTHM levels and low Ca and Mg intake. Our findings showed that the correlation between TTHM exposure and risk of esophageal cancer development was influenced by Ca and Mg levels in drinking water. This is the first study to report effect modification by Ca and Mg intake from drinking water on the correlation between TTHM exposure and risk of esophageal cancer occurrence. Increased knowledge of the interaction between Ca, Mg, and TTHM in reducing risk of esophageal cancer development will aid in public policymaking and standard setting for drinking water.