Hong CH, Bagramian RA, Hashim Nainar SM, Straffon LH, Shen L, Hsu CY. High caries prevalence and risk factors among young preschool children in an urban community with water fluoridation. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2013 Feb 4. doi: 10.1111/ipd.12023.
BACKGROUND: Singapore is unique in that it is a 100% urban community with majority of the population living in a homogeneous physical environment. She, however, has diverse ethnicities and cultures as such; there may be caries risk factors that are unique to this population.
AIM: The aims were to assess the oral health of preschool children and to identify the associated caries risk factors.
DESIGN: An oral examination and a questionnaire were completed for each consenting child-parent pair.
RESULTS: One hundred and ninety children (mean age: 36.3 ± 6.9 months) were recruited from six community medical clinics. Ninety-two children (48.4%) were caries active. The mean d(123) t and d(123) s scores were 2.2 ± 3.3 and 3.0 ± 5.6, respectively. Higher plaque scores were significantly (P < 0.0005) associated with all measures of decay (presence of decay, dt, ds). The risk factors for severity of decay (i.e., dt and ds) include child's age, breastfeeding duration, and parents' ability to withhold cariogenic snacks from their child.
CONCLUSIONS: The high caries rate suggests that current preventive methods to reduce caries in Singapore may have reached their maximum effectiveness, and other risk factors such as child's race, and dietary and breastfeeding habits need to be addressed.
Posted in Fluoride
Edward J. Calabrese. NEPA, EPA and risk assessment: Has EPA lost its way?Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, Volume 64, Issue 2, November 2012, Pages 267–268.
The EPA risk assessment practice denies the inclusion of beneficial responses in the evaluation process. This practice represents a marked deviation from the original guidelines set forth within NEPA, which required the integrated goal of environmental protection as including both a reduction in risk as well as an enhancement of health benefit. It is time for regulatory agencies such as EPA to incorporate both harm and benefit within its risk assessment process.
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Piers M. Forster, Timothy Andrews, Peter Good, Jonathan M. Gregory, Lawrence S. Jackson, Mark Zelinka. Evaluating adjusted forcing and model spread for historical and future scenarios in the CMIP5 generation of climate models. Journal of Geophysical Research Atmospheres. 2013 DOI: 10.1002/jgrd.50174
 We utilize energy budget diagnostics from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) to evaluate the models’ climate forcing since preindustrial times employing an established regression technique. The climate forcing evaluated this way, termed the adjusted forcing (AF), includes a rapid adjustment term associated with cloud changes and other tropospheric and land-surface changes. We estimate a 2010 total anthropogenic and natural AF from CMIP5 models of 1.9 ± 0.9 W m−2 (5–95% range). The projected AF of the Representative Concentration Pathway simulations are lower than their expected radiative forcing (RF) in 2095 but agree well with efficacy weighted forcings from integrated assessment models. The smaller AF, compared to RF, is likely due to cloud adjustment. Multimodel time series of temperature change and AF from 1850 to 2100 have large intermodel spreads throughout the period. The intermodel spread of temperature change is principally driven by forcing differences in the present day and climate feedback differences in 2095, although forcing differences are still important for model spread at 2095. We find no significant relationship between the equilibrium climate sensitivity (ECS) of a model and its 2003 AF, in contrast to that found in older models where higher ECS models generally had less forcing. Given the large present-day model spread, there is no indication of any tendency by modelling groups to adjust their aerosol forcing in order to produce observed trends. Instead, some CMIP5 models have a relatively large positive forcing and overestimate the observed temperature change.
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Posted in Climate
This report is intended to position the WRCB as the champion of drinking water, in preparation for legislation intended to take over water regulation.
And one might ask, “A war on who?” Click here for news report…
Posted in Security