Kelvin Wonga, Thomas C. Voicea, Irene Xagorarakia. Effect of organic carbon on sorption of human adenovirus to soil particles and laboratory containers. Water Research, Volume 47, Issue 10, 15 June 2013, Pages 3339–3346.
A key factor controlling the relationship between virus release and human exposure is how virus particles interact with soils, sediments and other solid particles in the environment and in engineered treatment systems. Finding no previous investigations of human adenovirus (HAdV) sorption, we performed a series of experiments to evaluate the role of soil organic carbon (SOC) and solution-phase dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on sorption capacity and reversibility. In preliminary methodological studies, we found that as much as 99% of HAdV was lost from inorganic buffer suspensions in polypropylene (PP) laboratory containers, but little loss occurred when using suspensions with substantial amounts of DOC or with glass containers from either type of suspension. It was confirmed that this loss was due to sorption rather than inactivation by using lysis-based recovery techniques and qPCR measurements that do not depend on virus viability. In isotherm experiments, soils with 2% OC had ∼four-fold greater sorption capacity for HAdV than 8% OC soils; moreover, the sorption capacity of 2% OC soils was reduced ∼seven-fold with an aqueous solution containing 150 mg/L of humic acid. After sequential extractions, higher fractions of sorbed HAdV were released from 8% OC soils. The amounts of HAdV and OC released remained relatively constant throughout each extraction step, indicating that desorbed HAdV could be caused primarily by the detachment of SOC from soils. Overall, results from this study suggest that OC plays a critical role in the sorption and desorption of HAdV, and as a result, on its environmental fate and transport.
Click here for full paper (Open Source).
For several decades now USEPA has continued to push consolidation and variable water rates or single tarriff pricing to force water and wastewater systems in the United States to raise water rates. The so called “affordability” issue has been an ongoing unresolved issue for many years. Why? Becuase a robust economy is needed for sustainable water and wastewater systems. But USEPA wants us to continue to believe that it only (the federal government) and more regulation are needed.
USEPA has used drinking water policy such as its affordability criteria as a very effective technique for putting cities and states “in their place”….that is, under the federal government’s thumb of control. Robert Perciaseppe, who orchestrated the drinking water program “redirection” of USEPA in the 1990’s, continues to position the agency as the final arbiter on everything drinking water, including how much it should cost (based on the elusive median household income). It has been 17 years since the SDWA amendments of 1996 were enacted, launching an unprecedented decade-long over-reach of government regulation of drinking water, as well as providing a launching pad for jamming through a much larger leftist progressive socialist (whatever you want to call it) agenda.
More to come on this history….
Scafetta, N.: Discussion on common errors in analyzing sea level accelerations, solar trends and global warming, Pattern Recogn. Phys., 1, 37-57, doi:10.5194/prp-1-37-2013, 2013.
Herein I discuss common errors in applying regression models and wavelet filters used to analyze geophysical signals. I demonstrate that: (1) multidecadal natural oscillations (e.g. the quasi 60 yr Multidecadal Atlantic Oscillation (AMO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO)) need to be taken into account for properly quantifying anomalous background accelerations in tide gauge records such as in New York City; (2) uncertainties and multicollinearity among climate forcing functions also prevent a proper evaluation of the solar contribution to the 20th century global surface temperature warming using overloaded linear regression models during the 1900–2000 period alone; (3) when periodic wavelet filters, which require that a record is pre-processed with a reflection methodology, are improperly applied to decompose non-stationary solar and climatic time series, Gibbs boundary artifacts emerge yielding misleading physical interpretations. By correcting these errors and using optimized regression models that reduce multicollinearity artifacts, I found the following results: (1) the relative sea level in New York City is not accelerating in an alarming way, and may increase by about 350 ± 30 mm from 2000 to 2100 instead of the previously projected values varying from 1130 ± 480 mm to 1550 ± 400 mm estimated using the methods proposed, e.g., by Sallenger Jr. et al. (2012) and Boon (2012), respectively; (2) the solar activity increase during the 20th century contributed at least about 50% of the 0.8 °C global warming observed during the 20th century instead of only 7–10% (e.g.: IPCC, 2007; Benestad and Schmidt, 2009; Lean and Rind, 2009; Rohde et al., 2013). The first result was obtained by using a quadratic polynomial function plus a 60 yr harmonic to fit a required 110 yr-long sea level record. The second result was obtained by using solar, volcano, greenhouse gases and aerosol constructors to fit modern paleoclimatic temperature reconstructions (e.g.: Moberg et al., 2005; Mann et al., 2008; Christiansen and Ljungqvist, 2012) since the Medieval Warm Period, which show a large millennial cycle that is well correlated to the millennial solar cycle (e.g.: Kirkby, 2007; Scafetta and West, 2007; Scafetta, 2012c). These findings stress the importance of natural oscillations and of the sun to properly interpret climatic changes.
Click here for full paper (Open Source).
Posted in Climate
There is ongoing debate regarding the earth’s energy budget, the role (or existance) of downwelling infrared radiation, and whether long wave infrared radiation (LWIR) from a cooler object can cause warmer objects to be even more warmer. Most recently the view points have been subject of a series of exchanges on Dr. Roy Spencer’s blog. I’ve been mulling this issue over for some time, and though I have not reached a final conclusion, this issue and these exchanges are not trivial. It is clear reading the exchanges that frustration has emerged on all sides as the parties defend their respective views…..I suggest reading the exchanges here and here….
More on this later…
Posted in Climate