These authors conclude:
“After thirteen years and two new generations of climate models (CMIP-3, -5) the results still suggest that model-averages are unable to represent (1) the observed magnitudes of tropical temperature trends throughout the tropospheric levels, and (2) the relationship between the temperature trends of the surface and troposphere. The disparity remains.”
David H. Douglass, John R. Christy. Reconciling Observations of Global Temperature Change: 2013. Journal Energy & Environment. Volume 24, Number 3 – 4 / June 2013 DOI: 10.1260/0958-305X.24.3-4.415
In 2000 a panel of the U.S. National Research Council in a report with the same title suggested, among other things, that a “substantial disparity remains” between the observed warming rates of the surface and troposphere. Also, in 2000, the climate models showed more warming of the tropical atmosphere than was observed. Many papers have been written since then. We discuss the most recent papers on this subject and using the latest data show that the differences remain unresolved.
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Ali Belmeziti, Olivier Coutard, and Bernard de Gouvello. A New Methodology for Evaluating Potential for Potable Water Savings (PPWS) by Using Rainwater Harvesting at the Urban Level: The Case of the Municipality of Colombes (Paris Region). Water 2013, 5(1), 312-326; doi: 10.3390/w5010312
The practice of rainwater harvesting (RWH) is spreading rapidly in urban areas. This article studies the impact of a possible generalization of this practice for municipalities by proposing a new method to quantify the potential for potable water savings (PPWS) by using rainwater harvesting at the urban level. The proposed method is based on the adaptation of an already validated model assessing the PPWS for single buildings and the use of urban databases. Two concepts are introduced: (1) the “building type” that allows gathering all the buildings sharing common features; and (2) the “equivalent building,” which is used to assess the PPWS of a set of buildings (of a same building type) as if it were a single building. In the case of the municipality of Colombes (located in the suburbs of Paris), the method shows that the PPWS by using rainwater harvesting represents about 10% of the total potable water consumption: the residential buildings account for 64% of this potential. This method can be applied to other municipalities with a level of acceptable reliability with regard to the means to be implemented in terms of collecting information.
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