Daily Archives: September 16, 2013

Climate scientists admit their computers got it wrong…..

Many of us said this in 2007……look how long it took the so-called “unbiased” scientists to accept the real science. “Climate science” today is a joke.

“A leaked copy of the world’s most authoritative climate study reveals scientific forecasts of imminent doom were drastically wrong.” Click here….

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Fluoride exposure and carotid artery atherosclerosis

Liu H, Gao Y, Sun L, Li M, Li B, Sun D. Assessment of relationship on excess fluoride intake from drinking water and carotid atherosclerosis development in adults in fluoride endemic areas, China. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2013 Aug 14. pii: S1438-4639(13)00113-2. doi: 10.1016/j.ijheh.2013.08.001.

Cross-sectional analysis was conducted to access the relationships between developing carotid artery atherosclerosis through consuming high fluoride in drinking water and its possible mechanism, using the baseline data collected from 585 study subjects. In the cross sectional analysis, subjects were divided into four groups based on the concentrations of fluoride in their drinking water. The range of fluoride concentrations was: normal group (less than 1.20mg/L), mild group (1.21-2.00mg/L), moderate group (2.01-3.00mg/L), and high concentration group (more than 3.01mg/L). The prevalence rate of carotid artery atherosclerosis in the subjects in each group was found to be 16.13%, 27.22%, 27.10%, and 29.69%, respectively. Significant difference between the prevalence of carotid artery atherosclerosis in the mild, moderate and high fluoride exposure group and in the normal group was observed (P<0.05). In addition, it was found that elevated intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and reduced glutathione peroxidases (GPx) was associated with carotid artery atherosclerosis in fluoride endemic areas. The findings of the research study revealed a significant positive relationship between excess fluoride exposure from drinking water and prevalence of carotid artery atherosclerosis in adults living in fluoride endemic areas. The possible mechanism was the excess fluoride induced the decreasing level of GPx causing the systemic inflammation and endothelial activation by oxidative stress.

Click here for article (fee).

Global solar power potential much less than previously thought

Carlos de Castro, Margarita Mediavilla, Luis Javier Miguel, Fernando Frechoso. Global solar electric potential: A review of their technical and sustainable limits. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Volume 28, December 2013, Pages 824–835.

Despite the fact that renewable energies offer a great theoretical potential of energy and that most of them have only a small share of global primary and final consumption (less than 2% of final World energy consumption was provided by wind, solar, geothermal, biomass and biofuels together), their limits should be carefully analyzed. While other methodologies are based on theoretical efficiencies of renewable energies, generous estimations of effective global surface that could be occupied by the renewable infrastructure and/or ignore the mineral reserve limits, our assessment is based on a top-down methodology (de Castro et al.) that takes into account real present and foreseeable future efficiencies and surface occupation of technologies, land competence and other limits such as mineral reserves. We have focused here on the net density power (electric averaged watts per square meter, We/m2) and compared our top-down assessment, based on real examples, with other theoretical based assessments; our results show that present and foreseeable future density power of solar infrastructures are much less (4–10 times) than most published studies. This relatively low density implies much bigger land necessities per watt delivered, putting more pressure on Earth than previously thought. On the other hand, mineral reserves of some scarce materials being used will also put pressure on this industry, because there is also a trade-off between solar park efficiencies and mineral limits. Although it is very difficult to give a global limit to the expansion of solar power, an overview of the land and materials needed for large scale implementation show that many of the estimations found in the literature are hardly compatible with the rest of human activities. Overall, solar could be more limited than supposed from a technological and sustainable point of view: around 60–120 EJ/yr.

Click here for full paper (Open Source).

Mean Temperature, Contiguous United States, 1756-2011

Plotting the monthly mean surface temperature for the contiguous United States from the Berkeley Earth Surface Temperature (BEST) data set yields the following box plot:

Box Plot of Mean Temp Contig US 1756-2011

Keep in mind that the data set plotted above includes all of the natural factors that would influence weather and climate in an area. In other words, actual historical measurements already take into account the various natural factors that affect measured temperature.