Monthly Archives: January 2014

California cuts 2014 State Water Project delivery to Zero

“In order to protect the state’s available water, the California Department of Water Resources says it has dropped the number of state water allocations to zero.” click here for news article.

Beijing adjusted surface temperature data found to have exaggerated warming trends

Lei Zhang, Guo-Yu Ren, Yu-Yu Ren, Ai-Ying Zhang, Zi-Ying Chu, Ya-Qing Zhou. Effect of data homogenization on estimate of temperature trend: a case of Huairou station in Beijing Municipality. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, February 2014, Volume 115, Issue 3-4, pp 365-373

Daily minimum temperature (Tmin) and maximum temperature (Tmax) data of Huairou station in Beijing from 1960 to 2008 are examined and adjusted for inhomogeneities by applying the data of two nearby reference stations. Urban effects on the linear trends of the original and adjusted temperature series are estimated and compared. Results show that relocations of station cause obvious discontinuities in the data series, and one of the discontinuities for Tmin are highly significant when the station was moved from downtown to suburb in 1996. The daily Tmin and Tmax data are adjusted for the inhomogeneities. The mean annual Tmin and Tmax at Huairou station drop by 1.377°C and 0.271°C respectively after homogenization. The adjustments for Tmin are larger than those for Tmax, especially in winter, and the seasonal differences of the adjustments are generally more obvious for Tmin than for Tmax. Urban effects on annual mean Tmin and Tmax trends are −0.004°C/10 year and −0.035°C/10 year respectively for the original data, but they increase to 0.388°C/10 year and 0.096°C/10 year respectively for the adjusted data. The increase is more significant for the annual mean Tmin series. Urban contributions to the overall trends of annual mean Tmin and Tmax reach 100% and 28.8% respectively for the adjusted data. Our analysis shows that data homogenization for the stations moved from downtowns to suburbs can lead to a significant overestimate of rising trends of surface air temperature, and this necessitates a careful evaluation and adjustment for urban biases before the data are applied in analyses of local and regional climate change.

Click here for full paper (Open Source).

Past California droughts have lasted 200+ years

“The two most severe megadroughts make the Dust Bowl of the 1930s look tame: a 240-year-long drought that started in 850 and, 50 years after the conclusion of that one, another that stretched at least 180 years.” Click here for the news article.

Gov. Jerry Brown: stealing water to give away to others? Time will tell….

“The governor revealed Wednesday he’s prepared to move water from Southern California to drier areas of the state as conditions worsen.” click here

Phytoplankton in subtropical China drinking water reservoir

Lv H, Yang J, Liu L, Yu X, Yu Z, Chiang P. Temperature and nutrients are significant drivers of seasonal shift in phytoplankton community from a drinking water reservoir, subtropical China. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2014 Jan 23.

Reservoirs are an important source of water supply in many densely populated areas in southeast China. Phytoplankton plays an important role in maintaining the structure and function of these reservoir ecosystems. Understanding of seasonal succession in phytoplankton communities and its driving factors is essential for effective water quality management in drinking-water reservoirs. In this study, water samples were collected monthly at the surface layers of riverine, transitional, and lacustrine zones from May 2010 to April 2011 in Tingxi Reservoir, southeast China. The phytoplankton showed distinct seasonal shifts in community structure at both taxonomic and functional levels. Cyanophyta was the dominant group in summer, especially species of Raphidiopsis in May and Aphanizomenon in June, and cyanobacterial dominance was promoted by both warmer conditions and excessive nutrients loading. Cyanophyta was gradually replaced by Cryptophyta (e.g., Chroomonas caudata) in abundance and by Bacillariophyta (Fragilaria sp. or Synedra sp. and Melosira sp.) in biomass with decreasing temperature. It appeared that seasonal shifts in phytoplankton composition were closely related to climate, nutrient status, and hydrology in this reservoir. Our partial RDA results clearly showed that watertemperature and nutrients (TN and TP) were the most critical factors driving phytoplankton community shift in the abundance and biomass data, respectively. Further, with the global warming, cyanobacterial blooms may increase in distribution, duration, and intensity. In our study, the abundance and biomass of cyanobacteria had significant and positive correlations with temperature and phosphorus. Therefore, a stricter limit on nutrient input should be a priority in watershed management to protect drinking water from the effects of cyanobacterial blooms, especially in high-temperature period.

Click here for full paper (fee).

17 California communities may run out of water

This is not surprising. Keep in mind that water is a political weapon in California and the west. Water resource allocation is typically manipulated to favor large democratic cities and allow the rural areas to suffer. 17 communities throughout the state could run out of water within 60 to 120…click here for article. 

Fluoride ingestion, serum/urinary levels, and thyroid hormone levels in children

Singh N, Verma KG, Verma P, Sidhu GK, Sachdeva S. A comparative study of fluoride ingestion levels, serum thyroid hormone & TSH level derangements, dental fluorosis status among school children from endemic and non-endemic fluorosis areas. Springerplus. 2014 Jan 3;3:7. doi: 10.1186/2193-1801-3-7.

The study was undertaken to determine serum/urinary fluoride status and comparison of free T4, free T3 and thyroid stimulating hormone levels of 8 to 15 years old children with and without dental fluorosis living in an endemic and non-endemic fluorosis area. A sample group of 60 male and female school children, with or without dental fluorosis, consuming fluoride-contaminated water in endemic fluoride area of Udaipur district, Rajasthan were selected through a school dental fluorosis survey. The sample of 10 children of same age and socio-economic status residing in non endemic areas who did not have dental fluorosis form controls. Fluoride determination in drinking water, urine and blood was done with Ion 85 Ion Analyzer Radiometer with Hall et al. method. The thyroid gland functional test was done by Immonu Chemiluminiscence Micropartical Assay with Bayer Centaur Autoanalyzer. The significantly altered FT3, FT4 and TSH hormones level in both group1A and 1B school children were noted. The serum and urine fluoride levels were found to be increased in both the groups. A significant relationship of water fluoride to urine and serum fluoride concentration was seen.  The serum fluoride concentration also had significant relationship with thyroid hormone (FT3/FT4) and TSH concentrations. The testing of drinking water and body fluids for fluoride content, along with FT3, FT4, and TSH in children with dental fluorosis is desirable for recognizing underlying thyroid derangements and its impact on fluorosis.