It is very evident that there is little precipitation in many areas. There have been many periods in history where multi-year droughts have affected populations…..some had to move, some populations vanished.
Changes associated with climate are those over periods of 30 years or more…..and clearly the historical record shows what is happening now is typical, but not the most extreme. Farmers must face this prospect year after year, not just now when the political spotlight is on.
The Huff Post(ians) as well as the IPCC seem to be very confused about what is “weather” and what is “climate.” (click here) Of course, in California, the unions need funding. They control many things, and operate the water and wastewater systems for the most part (We do appreciate them for this, by the way. As I have said before, it is not union members that I have problem with, but how they are politicized by the union bosses).
Using a drought as an excuse for pushing Gov. Jerry Brown’s porker of a water funding program with money no one has or can afford? Let’s get real…..no precipitation means no water, even with Brown’s porker water bill.
Gwala P, Andey S, Nagarnaik P, Ghosh SP, Pal P, Deshmukh P, Labhasetwar P. Design and development of sustainable remediation process for mitigation of fluoride contamination in ground water and field application for domestic use. Sci Total Environ. 2014 Feb 19. pii: S0048-9697(14)00063-1. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.01.054.
Decentralised household chemo defluoridation unit (CDU) was developed and designed based on a combination of coagulation and sorption processes. Chemo-defluoridation process was optimised to reduce use of chemicals and increase acceptability among beneficiaries without affecting palatability of water. Chemical dose optimization undertaken in the laboratory using jar test revealed the optimum calcium salt to initial fluoride ratio of 60 for fluoride removal. Performance of CDU was evaluated in the laboratory for removal efficiency, water quality parameters, filter bed cleaning cycle and desorption of fluoride. CDU evaluation in the laboratory with spiked water (5mg/L) and field water (~4.2mg/L) revealed treated water fluoride concentration of less than 1mg/L. Seventy five CDUs were installed in households at Sakhara Village, Yavatmal District in Maharashtra State of India. Monthly monitoring of CDUs for one year indicated reduction of the raw water fluoride concentration from around 4mg/L to less than 1mg/L. Post implementation survey after regular consumption of treated drinking water by the users for one year indicated user satisfaction and technological sustainability.
Posted in Fluoride