Daily Archives: April 16, 2014

5 volcanoes erupt on Russia’s Kamchatka Peninsula

40 volcanoes on this peninsula are active (click here) .

Landsat 8 captured activity at five of them during a single satellite pass on April 14, 2014. click here

What might we expect to be emitted to the atmosphere in large quantities as a result? Any guesses?

 

BLM leaves trail of destruction in Nevada?

“They had total control of this land for one week, and look at the destruction they did in one week,” said Corey Houston, friend of rancher Cliven Bundy and his family. “So why would you trust somebody like that? And how does that show that they’re a better steward?” click here

Tap and bottled water intake for US adults

There have been several studies over the years on drinking water intake. This is the first I have seen that attempts to compare water intake per 1000 kcal.

Drewnowski, Adam, Rehm, Colin D., Constant, Florence. Water and beverage consumption among adults in the United States: cross-sectional study using data from NHANES 2005-2010. BMC Public Health. 2013, Vol. 13 Issue 1, p1-19.

Background: Few studies have examined plain water consumption among US adults. This study evaluated the consumption of plain water (tap and bottled) and total water among US adults by age group (20-50y, 51-70y, and ≥71y), gender, income-to-poverty ratio, and race/ethnicity.

Methods: Data from up to two non-consecutive 24-hour recalls from the 2005-2006, 2007-2008 and 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) was used to evaluate usual intake of water and water as a beverage among 15,702 US adults. The contribution of different beverage types (e.g., water as a beverage [tap or bottled], milk [including flavored], 100% fruit juice, soda/soft drinks [regular and diet], fruit drinks, sports/energy drinks, coffee, tea, and alcoholic beverages) to total water and energy intakes was examined. Total water intakes from plain water, beverages, and food were compared to the Adequate Intake (AI) values from the US Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Total water volume per 1,000 kcal was also examined.

Results: Water and other beverages contributed 75-84% of dietary water, with 17-25% provided by water in foods, depending on age. Plain water, from tap or bottled sources, contributed 30- 37% of total dietary water. Overall, 56% of drinking water volume was from tap water while bottled water provided 44%. Older adults (≥71y) consumed much less bottled water than younger adults. Non-Hispanic whites consumed the most tap water, whereas Mexican- Americans consumed the most bottled water. Plain water consumption (bottled and tap) tended to be associated with higher incomes. On average, younger adults exceeded or came close to satisfying the DRIs for water. Older men and women failed to meet the Institute of Medicine (IOM) AI values, with a shortfall in daily water intakes of 1218 mL and 603 mL respectively. Eighty-three percent of women and 95% of men ≥71y failed to meet the IOM AI values for water. However, average water volume per 1,000 kcal was 1.2-1.4 L/1,000 kcal for most population sub-groups, in excess of suggested levels of 1.0 L/1.000 kcal.

Conclusions: Water intakes below IOM-recommended levels may be a cause for concern, especially for older adults.

Detecting uranium and polonium in drinking water

Bouvier-Capely, C., Bonthonneau, J.P., Dadache, E., Rebière, F. An alternative procedure for uranium analysis in drinking water using AQUALIX columns: Application to varied French bottled waters. Talanta. Jan2014, Vol. 118, p180-185.

The general population is chronically exposed to uranium (234U, 235U, and 238U) and polonium (210Po) mainly through day-to-day food and beverage intake. The measurement of these naturally-occurring radionuclides in drinking water is important to assess their health impact. In this work the applicability of calix[6]arene-derivatives columns for uranium analysis in drinking water was investigated. A simple and effective method was proposed on a specific column called AQUALIX, for the separation and preconcentration of U from drinking water. This procedure is suitable for routine analysis and the analysis time is considerably shortened (around 4h) by combining the separation on AQUALIX with fast ICP-MS measurement. This new method was tested on different French bottled waters (still mineral water, sparkling mineral water, and spring water). Then, the case of simultaneous presence of uranium and polonium in water was considered due to interferences in alpha spectrometry measurement. A protocol was proposed using a first usual step of spontaneous deposition of polonium on silver disc in order to separate Po, followed by the uranium extraction on AQUALIX column before alpha spectrometry counting.