“A government-contracted security force threatened to arrest doctors and nurses if they divulged any information about the contagion threat at a refugee camp housing illegal alien children at Lackland Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas, sources say.” click here
Helping those people who are ill should be a priority. But not informing others more broadly of the potential health risks, especially for the communicable diseases observed in the children, is irresponsible.
Sun W, Liu J, Chu H, Dong B. Pretreatment and membrane hydrophilic modification to reduce membrane fouling. Membranes (Basel). 2013 Sep 4;3(3):226-41. doi: 10.3390/membranes3030226.
The application of low pressure membranes (microfiltration/ultrafiltration) has undergone accelerated development for drinking water production. However, the major obstacle encountered in its popularization is membrane fouling caused by natural organic matter (NOM). This paper firstly summarizes the two factors causing the organic membrane fouling, including molecular weight (MW) and hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of NOM, and then presents a brief introduction of the methods which can prevent membrane fouling such as pretreatment of the feed water (e.g., coagulation, adsorption, and pre-oxidation) and membrane hydrophilic modification (e.g., plasma modification, irradiation grafting modification, surface coating modification, blend modification, etc.). Perspectives of further research are also discussed.
Click here for full paper (Open Access).