The data set comparison below along with plots are presented here.
|Change from last month
|12 month running average
|12 month average – 1981-2010 Baseline
Keep in mind that application of DALYs in this manner is not widely accepted because underlying assumptions are problematic.
Pan S, An W, Li H, Su M, Zhang J, Yang M. Cancer risk assessment on trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids in drinking water of China using disability-adjusted life years. J Hazard Mater. 2014 Aug 13;280C:288-294. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.07.080.
The cancer risks from exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) through multiple pathways were assessed based on the result of a water quality survey in 35 major cities of China. To express the risks in disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), the excess cancer incidence estimates were combined with a two-stage disease model for calculation. The median total cancer risk of THMs and HAAs was calculated as 7.34×10-7 DALYs per person-year (ppy), lower than the reference level of risk (10-6DALYsppy) set by WHO. The risk from ingestion and inhalation exposures contributed 93.6% and 6.3% of the total risk respectively, while dermal contact made a negligible contribution. The median risk of trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) (2.12×10-7DALYsppy) was highest among the disinfection by-products (DBPs) considered. The risk ratio of total HAAs (THAA) to total THMs (TTHM) was 1.12. The risk was highest in northeast China while lowest in northwest China. As for the 35 cities, Tianjin had the highest risk while Yinchuan had the lowest. This study attempted to use DALYs for the risk assessment of DBPs, which will provide useful information for risk comparison and prioritization of hazards in drinking water.
Click here for full paper (Open Source).
This is the kind of nonsense thinking that occurs when term definitions are ambiguous. The “climate change” chorus has been using equivocation for along time to push an agenda. There is no static state of climate from which it changes. It is a dynamic system. To say a change is “good” or “bad” is to make a moral judgment on a natural physical system. For anyone else to be compelled to agree with the opinion of this scientist would assume a uniform, invariant, and universal standard of morality. So, what standard of morality is being used here?
This is like saying drinking water is good, and drinking water is bad. It is neither. Drinking water is drinking water. The effects may be good or bad but which you may think it is depends on your presuppositions and the moral standard used.
” “If you’re in Southern Canada, climate change is going to be a good thing. If you’re in Siberia, it’s going to be a good thing. If you’re in Los Angeles and the Southwest, it’s going to be a bad thing,” says Mass. ” click here
Every year reports surface of Naegleria being found in a water supply.
“Officials say the Naegleria fowleri amoeba was found in samples taken from St. John the Baptist Parish’s Water District No. 1, which serves 12,577 people in those east bank communities.” click here
Total fluoride exposure is what counts regarding any harmful effects of fluoride. Although most measured concentrations are low in this study, fluoride in soya milk is not necessarily an insignificant contribution to a person’s overall fluoride exposure.
Lal H, Zohoori FV, Omid N, Valentine R, Maguire A. The fluoride contents of commercially-available soya milks in the UK. Br Dent J. 2014 Aug 22;217(4):E8. doi: 10.1038/sj.bdj.2014.736.
Background: In some parts of the world, soya milks are found to be a significant source of fluoride (F). Among western commercial markets, although there has been a sustained increase in soya milk products available for purchase, there are limited data on their F content.
Objective: To determine the F content of soya milk products available in the UK market including fresh and ultra-high temperature products in addition to sweetened and unsweetened soya milks.
Materials and methods: Fifty-two traditional and UK-produced soya milk samples commercially available in northeast England were analysed to determine their F concentration using a modified hexamethyldisiloxane-facilitated diffusion method with a F-ion-selective electrode coupled to a potentiometer.
Results: The median F concentration of all products was 0.293 μg/ml ranging from 0.015 μg/ml to 0.964 μg/ml. The median F concentration of ultra-high temperature (UHT) (n = 42) milks was 0.272 μg/ml lower than 0.321 μg/ml obtained for fresh (n = 10) soya milks. Organic soya milks contained less F compared with non-organic for sweetened and unsweetened categories.
Conclusion: Commercially available soya milks in the UK do not pose an increased risk for dental fluorosis development. Further research is necessary into the manufacturing process of soya milks, which may influence the overall F content of the end product.
Changes in ice mass are natural fluctuations.
A. Mémina, T. Flamentb, F. Rémyb, M. Llubes. Snow- and ice-height change in Antarctica from satellite gravimetry and altimetry data. Earth and Planetary Science Letters, Volume 404, 15 October 2014, Pages 344–353
We combine the surface-elevation and surface-mass change derived from Envisat data and GRACE solutions, respectively, to estimate regional changes in air and ice content of the surface of the Antarctic Ice Sheet (AIS) between January 2003 and October 2010. This leads, upon certain assumptions, to the separation of the rates of recent snow-accumulation change and that of ice-mass change. We obtain that the height of ice in Thwaites and Pine Island glaciers sectors decreases (≤−15.7 cm/yr) while that in the Kamb glacier sector increases (≥5.3 cm/yr). The central part of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet is mostly stable while the whole Dronning Maud Land coast is dominated by an increase in snow accumulation. The Kemp land regions show an ice-mass gain that accounts for 67–74% of the observed rates of elevation change in these regions. A good agreement is obtained over 68% of the investigated area, mostly in the East AIS, between our estimated rates of snow accumulation change and the predicted rates of the monthly surface mass balance derived from a regional atmospheric climate model.
Click here for full paper (Open Access).