Daily Archives: September 1, 2014

Rotavirus Diarrhea in Young Children, Urban Bangladesh

Sarker MH, Das SK, Ahmed S, Ferdous F, Das J, Farzana FD, Shahunja KM, Afrad MH, Malek MA, Chisti MJ, Bardhan PK, Hossain MI, Mamun AA, Faruque AS. Changing Characteristics of Rotavirus Diarrhea in Children Younger than Five Years in Urban Bangladesh. PLoS One. 2014 Aug 29;9(8):e105978. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0105978. eCollection 2014.

BACKGROUND: Childhood rotavirus diarrhea is still one of the major public health challenges. The present study aimed to determine changing characteristics of rotavirus diarrhea in under-5 children at two periods of time.

METHODS: We enrolled 5,357 under-5 children with rotavirus positive in two different time periods; i) 1993-1997 (n = 2,493), and ii) 2008-2012 (n = 2,864) considering beginning and ending of two decades. These children were enrolled in the urban Dhaka Hospital of icddr,b.

RESULTS: Overall, proportion of rotavirus was about 25% in 1993-97, which was 42% in 2008-12 (68% rise; p<0.001). Significant higher proportion of children were stunted [38% vs. 22%; aOR-1.33 (95% CI-1.09-1.62)], had vomiting [87% vs. 74%; aOR-2.58 (95% CI-2.02-3.28)], fever [10% vs. 8%; aOR-1.31 (95% CI-0.96-1.78)], family members >5 [38% vs. 35%; aOR-1.32 (95% CI-1.10-1.58)] required more intravenous fluid [9% vs. 3%; aOR-4.93 (95% CI-3.19-7.63)], had higher co-infection with Shigella [3% vs. 1%; aOR-3.36 (95% CI-1.61-7.03)], Vibrio cholerae [4% vs. 1%; aOR-3.70 (95% CI-2.12-6.46)]; and ETEC [13% vs. 7%; aOR-2.21 (95% CI-1.65-2.97)]; however, significantly lower proportion of them used sanitary toilets [54% vs. 78%; aOR-0.66 (95% CI-0.54-0.80)], boiled drinking water [16% vs. 38%; aOR-0.60 (95% CI-0.48-0.74)], used antimicrobial at home [63% vs. 82%; aOR-0.56 (95% CI-0.46-0.69)] and had some or severe dehydration [18% vs. 34%; aOR-0.15 (95% CI-0.12-0.20)] in 1st observation period compared to that of 2nd.

CONCLUSION: Proportion of episodes of under-5 rotavirus diarrhea increased over the period. Concomitant changes in host, socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, and co-infections were also observed. Thus, vaccination campaign which is prevailing in private sector should also be introduced in public sector.

Click here for full paper (Open Access).

California’a Ivanpah solar plant realities come into the light

“A cost/benefit analysis posted at the German Skeptical Science site finds Ivanpah, the world’s largest “solar” power plant, not only burns through a lot of birds, it inefficiently burns through a lot of fossil fuels and money as well. Ivanpah uses the ancient technology of firing steam boilers, which are far less efficient and generate higher emissions of CO2 & actual air pollutants than a modern gas turbine plant. “ Click here for full article at The Hockey Schtick.