Daily Archives: September 7, 2014

Strong Hurricanes More Common During Low CO2 Period, 1851-1898

Michael Chenoweth. A New Compilation of North Atlantic Tropical Cyclones, 1851-1898. Journal of Climate 2014 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-13-00771.1

A comprehensive new compilation of North Atlantic tropical cyclone activity for the years 1851-1898 is presented and compared with the “HURricane DATa 2nd Generation” (HURDAT2) database for the same years. This new analysis is based on the retrieval of 9,072 newspaper marine shipping news reports, 1,260 original logbook records, 271 Maury abstract logs, 147 U.S. marine meteorological journals and 34 UK Meteorological Office logbooks. Records from throughout North America and the Caribbean region were used along with other primary and secondary references holding unique land and marine data. For the first time, North Atlantic daily weather maps for 1864-1865, 1873 and 1881-1898 were used in historical tropical cyclone research.

Results for the years 1851-1898 include the omission of 62 of the 361 HURDAT2 storms, and the further reduction due to merging of storms to a total of 288 unique HURDAT 2 tropical cyclones. The new compilation gave a total of 497 tropical cyclones in the 48-year record, or an average of 10.4 storms year-1 compared to 6.0 year-1 in HURDAT2 less the author’s omissions. Of this total, 209 storms are completely new. A total of 90 hurricanes made landfall in the United States during this time. Seven new U.S. landfalling hurricanes are present in the new data set but not in HURDAT2. Eight U.S. landfalling hurricanes in HURDAT2 are now considered to have only tropical storm impact or were actually extratropical at landfall. Across the North Atlantic, the number of Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Wind Scale Category 4 hurricanes, compared with HURDAT2, increased from 11 to 25, six of which made U.S. landfall at Category 4 level.

Click here for full paper (fee).

 

History of exemptions from European Union Drinking Water Directive in Italy

“Derogation” is an exemption or relaxation from a rule or law.

Zicari G, Marro S, Soardo V, Berruti R, Maggi C, Cerrato E, Ferrari R, Gulino M. The history of derogations from chemical parametric values set by the European Drinking Water Directive (Council Directive 98/83/EC), in Italy and the Piedmont region. Ig Sanita Pubbl. 2014 Maj-Jun;70(3):323-338.

Italian legislation (Article 13 of Legislative Decree 31/2001) provides for the possibility of establishing derogations from chemical parametric values for drinking water set by EU legislation (Council Directive 98/83/EC), if the supply of drinking water cannot be maintained by any other reasonable means. A derogation is possible only after obtaining a specific authorization and must be limited to the shortest time possible. This paper presents the history of derogations granted in Italy and the case of arsenic and nickel in Piedmont. From 2003 to 2009, 13 regions requested a derogation (Campania, Emilia Romagna, Latium, Lombardy, Marche, Piedmont, Apulia, Sardinia, Sicily, Tuscany, Trentino Alto Adige, Umbria, Venetia) at different times and for a total of 13 parameters. In 2012, tap water provided to almost one million Italians in 112 municipalities of three regions (Latium, Tuscany and Campania), did not comply with the legal limits for the following parameters: arsenic, boron and fluorides. Currently, in the Piedmont region there are no derogations from the maximum permitted concentrations of contaminants in drinking water. In the past derogations have been applied for the nickel parameter (years 2006-2007) and from the arsenic parameter (years 2006-2008).