This is the kind of statement that reflects an ideological blindness:
“So, I think there are certain things that we can regard – given the evidence we have today – as essentially true.”
Evidence is not neutral. It requires an interpreter. And that interpreter will have presuppositions that guide and determine how the evidence is interpreted and what conclusions are reached. This statement alone is based on certain assumptions that cannot be justified.
For further discussion on this particular sentence take a look here.
“Farr said Tuesday night that the idea man-made global warming will cause permanent environmental damage is a con that is perpetrated by government agencies aiming to destroy personal freedom.” click here
Is the continued push to fluoridate drinking water a strategy to divert attention away from controlling the source of the true cause of dental caries? Just wondering…
Sheiham A, James WP. A reappraisal of the quantitative relationship between sugar intake and dental caries: the need for new criteria for developing goals for sugar intake. BMC Public Health. 2014 Sep 16;14(1):863. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-863.
BACKGROUND: There is a clear relation between sugars and caries. However, no analysis has yet been made of the lifetime burden of caries induced by sugar to see whether the WHO goal of 10% level is optimum and compatible with low levels of caries. The objective of this study was to re-examine the dose-response and quantitative relationship between sugar intake and the incidence of dental caries and to see whether the WHO goal for sugar intake of 10% of energy intake (E) is optimum for low levels of caries in children and adults.
METHODS: Analyses focused on countries where sugar intakes changed because of wartime restrictions or as part of the nutritional transition. A re-analysis of the dose-response relation between dietary sugar and caries incidence in teeth with different levels of susceptibility to dental caries in nationally representative samples of Japanese children. The impact of fluoride on levels of caries was also assessed.
RESULTS: Meticulous Japanese data on caries incidence in two types of teeth show robust log-linear relationships to sugar intakes from 0%E to 10%E sugar with a 10 fold increase in caries if caries is assessed over several years’ exposure to sugar rather than only for the first year after tooth eruption. Adults aged 65 years and older living in water fluoridated areas where high proportions of people used fluoridated toothpastes, had nearly half of all tooth surfaces affected by caries. This more extensive burden of disease in adults does not occur if sugar intakes are limited to <3% energy intake.
CONCLUSIONS: There is a robust log-linear relationship of caries to sugar intakes from 0%E to 10%E sugar. A 10%E sugar intake induces a costly burden of caries. These findings imply that public health goals need to set sugar intakes ideally <3%E with <5%E as a pragmatic goal, even when fluoride is widely used. Adult as well as children’s caries burdens should define the new criteria for developing goals for sugar intake.
Posted in Fluoride
Zhaohui Zhanga, Guillaume Leducc, Julian P. Sachsa. El Niño evolution during the Holocene revealed by a biomarker rain gauge in the Galápagos Islands. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. Volume 404, 15 October 2014, Pages 420–434.
The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) represents the largest perturbation to the climate system on an inter-annual time scale, but its evolution since the end of the last ice age remains debated due to the lack of unambiguous ENSO records lasting longer than a few centuries. Changes in the concentration and hydrogen isotope ratio of lipids produced by the green alga Botryococcus braunii, which blooms during El Niño rains in the Galápagos Islands, indicate that the early Holocene (9200–5600 yr BP) was characterized by alternating extremes in the intensity and/or frequency of El Niño events that lasted a century or more. Our data from the core of the ENSO region thus calls into question earlier studies that reported a lack of El Niño activity in the early Holocene. In agreement with other proxy evidence from the tropical Pacific, the mid-Holocene (5600–3500 yr BP) was a time of consistently weak El Niño activity, as were the Early Middle Ages (∼1000–1500 yr BP). El Niño activity was moderate to high during the remainder of the last 3500 years. Periods of strong or frequent El Niño tended to occur during peaks in solar activity and during extended droughts in the United States Great Plains linked to La Niña. These changing modes of ENSO activity at millennial and multi-centennial timescales may have been caused by variations in the seasonal receipts of solar radiation associated with the precession of the equinoxes and/or changes in solar activity, respectively.
Click here for full paper (fee).
“Gavin has very little data in Antarctica, but that didn’t stop him from turning a large region of -0.5 degree anomaly into a + 6 anomaly, and reporting to a precision of 0.01 degrees.” click here for discussion.