A declaration by governments about a natural phenomena they do not understand and cannot control is simply political nonsense.
“A temperature goal set by almost 200 governments as the limit for global warming is a poor guide to the planet’s health and should be ditched, a study said on Wednesday.” click here
Swain et al. (2014) “The Extraordinary California Drought of 2013/2014: Character, Context and the Role of Climate Change”. see press release here.
I’ve look at this close enough to see that the claims made by Swain et al 2014 are a sophisticated fictional construct. Why? Because outputs from “computer simulations and statistical techniques” are not observations nor are they data. Outputs from models that cannot be verified are speculation at best. One could call this “science” only by adopting a very liberal view of what “science” is. There is good reason to not just go along with claims based on the “model or simulation of the day”. Computer simulations are not reality.
By assuming that something called “human-caused” climate change can be distinguished from any other climate change these folks have simply applied modeling and statistical methods to prove what they have assumed from the beginning. A very sophisticated approach to begging the question.
It is very unfortunate indeed when a “science” organization like NSF trips and falls by issuing a politically biased press release and not paying attention to the science itself.
Smedley PL. Molybdenum distributions and variability in drinking water from England and Wales.Environmental Monitoring And Assessment 2014 Oct; Vol. 186 (10), pp. 6403-16
An investigation has been carried out of molybdenum in drinking water from a selection of public supply sources and domestic taps across England and Wales. This was to assess concentrations in relation to the World Health Organization (WHO) health-based value for Mo in drinking water of 70 μg/l and the decision to remove the element from the list of formal guideline values. Samples of treated drinking water from 12 water supply works were monitored up to four times over an 18-month period, and 24 domestic taps were sampled from three of their supply areas. Significant (p < 0.05) differences were apparent in Mo concentration between sources. Highest concentrations were derived from groundwater from a sulphide-mineralised catchment, although concentrations were only 1.5 μg/l. Temporal variability within sites was small, and no seasonal effects (p > 0.05) were detected. Tap water samples collected from three towns (North Wales, the English Midlands, and South East England) supplied uniquely by upland reservoir water, river water, and Chalk groundwater, respectively, also showed a remarkable uniformity in Mo concentrations at each location. Within each, the variability was very small between houses (old and new), between pre-flush and post-flush samples, and between the tap water and respective source water samples. The results indicate that water distribution pipework has a negligible effect on supplied tap water Mo concentrations. The findings contrast with those for Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, and Cd, which showed significant differences (p < 0.05) in concentrations between pre-flush and post-flush tap water samples. In two pre-flush samples, concentrations of Ni or Pb were above drinking water limits, although in all cases, post-flush waters were compliant. The high concentrations, most likely derived from metal pipework in the domestic distribution system, accumulated during overnight stagnation. The concentrations of Mo observed in British drinking water, in all cases less than 2 μg/l, were more than an order of magnitude below the WHO health-based value and suggest that Mo is unlikely to pose a significant health or water supply problem in England and Wales.
Jothiramajayam M1, Sinha S, Ghosh M, Nag A, Jana A, Mukherjee A. Sodium fluoride promotes apoptosis by generation of reactive oxygen species in human lymphocytes. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2014;77(21):1269-80. doi: 10.1080/15287394.2014.928658.
Fluoride generated the attention of toxicologists due to its deleterious effects at high concentrations in human populations suffering from fluorosis and with in vivo experimental models. Interest in its undesirable effects has resurfaced due to the awareness that this element interacts with cellular systems even at low doses. This study focused on examining the adverse effects of inorganic fluoride (NaF) on human lymphocyte cells in vitro. Mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, cell cycle progression, and mode of cell death were combined with genotoxic endpoints. Data demonstrated that NaF at lower concentrations, although not significantly cytotoxic and genotoxic, induced oxidative stress leading to apoptotic cell death. The results also suggested that at low concentrations (<1 μg/ml), NaF may affect cell cycle progression. Taken together, our findings confirm earlier reports on mechanisms involved in NaF-induced apoptosis.
Click here for full paper (fee).