Jothiramajayam M1, Sinha S, Ghosh M, Nag A, Jana A, Mukherjee A. Sodium fluoride promotes apoptosis by generation of reactive oxygen species in human lymphocytes. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2014;77(21):1269-80. doi: 10.1080/15287394.2014.928658.
Fluoride generated the attention of toxicologists due to its deleterious effects at high concentrations in human populations suffering from fluorosis and with in vivo experimental models. Interest in its undesirable effects has resurfaced due to the awareness that this element interacts with cellular systems even at low doses. This study focused on examining the adverse effects of inorganic fluoride (NaF) on human lymphocyte cells in vitro. Mitochondrial function, oxidative stress, cell cycle progression, and mode of cell death were combined with genotoxic endpoints. Data demonstrated that NaF at lower concentrations, although not significantly cytotoxic and genotoxic, induced oxidative stress leading to apoptotic cell death. The results also suggested that at low concentrations (<1 μg/ml), NaF may affect cell cycle progression. Taken together, our findings confirm earlier reports on mechanisms involved in NaF-induced apoptosis.
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