Daily Archives: October 10, 2014

Do the Federal “Revolving Loan” Funds Help or Hurt Achieving Safe Drinking Water, Clean Lakes and Rivers?

States are fully dependent upon federal funds for most of their programs and especially programs for drinking water and pollution control. The Clean Water State Revolving Loan Fund has been around since 1987. The Drinking Water State Revolving Loan Fund has been around since 1996. Yes, lots of money has been granted to states to provide loans to some municipalities for drinking water and/or wastewater treatment. When a states gets their grant every year they usually blow their horn to maintain an image of doing good for the citizens (e.g. Nevada). But the amount of money provided is very small compared to the overall need.

In the long run have these programs help or hurt the cause? In reality, such programs are simply not sustainable yet they continue to be funded for political expediency. But perhaps it is time to reexamine these and other federal programs related to drinking water and pollution control. A burgeoning federal and state bureaucracy does not keep drinking water clean nor do they prevent pollution.

We have more technological tools available now that when these regulatory programs began. Continuing unsustainable programs such as these are quickly becoming counterproductive.

Fluoride in the food chain, Bihar, India

Ranjan S, Yasmin S. Assessment of Fluoride Intake Through Food Chain and Mapping of Endemic Areas of Gaya District, Bihar, India. Bulletin of environmental contamination and toxicology 2014 Oct 8.

Accumulation of Fluoride (F) was found in the soil and vegetation of the F-endemic villages of Gaya district, Bihar, India. The mean F level in the groundwater of F non-endemic (control) area was 0.59 ± 0.03 (n = 11), while that of F-endemic area was 2.36 ± 0.23 (n = 27). Water soluble F (WSF) and total F (TF) in the soil of F-endemic villages were significantly higher as compared to the F non-endemic area. Similarly, WSF and TF in the vegetables and the grain crops (cereals, legumes and oilseeds) of the F-endemic area were significantly higher as compared that of the control area. Leafy vegetables showed higher accumulation of F with WSF and TF in spinach ranging from 3.62 to 4.82 and 9.88-12.88 mg/kg respectively. The WSF and TF in coriander ranged from 9.66 to 10.88 and 23.11-25.73 mg/kg respectively.

Click here for full paper (Open Access).

Climate Sensitivity Much Lower Than IPCC Claims

Hermann Harde. Advanced Two-Layer Climate Model for the Assessment of Global Warming by CO2. Open Journal of Atmospheric and Climate Change. In press.

We present an advanced two-layer climate model, especially appropriate to calculate the influence of an increasing CO2-concentration and a varying solar activity on global warming. The model describes the atmosphere and the ground as two layers acting simultaneously as absorbers and Planck radiators, and it includes additional heat transfer between these layers due to convection and evaporation. The model considers all relevant feedback processes caused by changes of water vapour, lapse-rate, surface albedo or convection and evaporation. In particular the influence of clouds with a thermally or solar induced feedback is investigated in some detail. The short- and long-wave absorption of the most important greenhouse gases water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane and ozone are derived from line-by-line calculations based on the HITRAN08-databasis and are integrated in the model. Simulations including an increased solar activity over the last century give a CO2 initiated warming of 0.2 ̊ C and a solar influence of 0.54 ̊ C over this period, corresponding to a CO2 climate sensitivity of 0.6 ̊ C (doubling of CO2) and a solar sensitivity of 0.5 ̊ C (0.1 % increase of the solar constant).

Click here for full paper (Open Access).