Daily Archives: October 18, 2014

Perfluoroalkyl acids in Seafood and Water, Korea

Heo JJ, Lee JW, Kim SK, Oh JE. Foodstuff analyses show that seafood and water are major perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) sources to humans in Korea. Journal of hazardous materials 2014 Aug 30;279:402-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2014.07.004.

We measured concentrations of PFAAs in 397 foods, of 66 types, in Korea, and determined the daily human dietary PFAAs intake and the contribution of each foodstuff to that intake. The PFAAs concentration in the 66 different food types ranged from below the detection limit to 48.3ng/g. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and long-chain perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) were the dominant PFAAs in fish, shellfish, and processed foods, while perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and short-chain PFCAs dominated dairy foodstuffs and beverages. The Korean adult dietary intake ranges, estimated for a range of scenarios, were 0.60-3.03 and 0.17-1.68ngkg(-1)bwd(-1) for PFOS and PFOA, respectively, which were lower than the total daily intake limits suggested by European Food Safety Authority (PFOS: 150ngkg(-1)bwd(-1); PFOA: 1500ngkg(-1)bwd(-1)). The major contributors to PFAAs dietary exposure varied with subject age and PFAAs. For example, fish was a major contributor of PFOS but dairy foods were major contributors of PFOA. However, tap water was a major contributor to PFOA intake when it was the main source of drinking water (rather than bottled water).

Click here for full paper (Open Access).

No Association Found in Between Arsenic and Spontaneous Pregnancy Loss

Bloom MS, Neamtiu IA, Surdu S, Pop C, Lupsa IR, Anastasiu D, Fitzgerald EF, Gurzau ES. Consumption of low-moderate level arsenic contaminated water does not increase spontaneous pregnancy loss: a case control study. Environ Health. 2014 Oct 13;13(1):81.

BACKGROUND: Previous work suggests an increased risk for spontaneous pregnancy loss linked to high levels of inorganic arsenic (iAs) in drinking water sources (>10 mug/L). However, there has been little focus to date on the impact of low-moderate levels of iAs in drinking water (<10 µg/L). To address this data gap we conducted a hospital-based case–control study in Timis County, Romania.

METHODS: We recruited women with incident spontaneous pregnancy loss of 5-20 weeks completed gestation as cases (n = 150), and women with ongoing pregnancies matched by gestational age (+/-1 week) as controls (n = 150). Participants completed a physician-administered questionnaire and we collected water samples from residential drinking sources. We reconstructed residential drinking water exposure histories using questionnaire data weighted by iAs determined using hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry (HG-AAS). Logistic regression models were used to generate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for associations between iAs exposure and loss, conditioned on gestational age and adjusted for maternal age, cigarette smoking, education and prenatal vitamin use. We explored potential interactions in a second set of models.

RESULTS: Drinking water arsenic concentrations ranged from 0.0 to 175.1 mug/L, with median 0.4 mug/L and 90th%tile 9.4 mug/L. There were no statistically significant associations between loss and average or peak drinking water iAs concentrations (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.96-1.01), or for daily iAs intake (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.98-1.02). We detected modest evidence for an interaction between average iAs concentration and cigarette smoking during pregnancy (P = 0.058) and for daily iAs exposure and prenatal vitamin use (P = 0.089).

CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest no increased risk for spontaneous pregnancy loss in association with low to moderate level drinking water iAs exposure. Though imprecise, our data also raise the possibility for increased risk among cigarette smokers. Given the low exposures overall, these data should reassure pregnant women and policy makers with regard to the potential effect of drinking water iAs on early pregnancy, though a larger more definitive study to investigate the potential risk increase in conjunction with cigarette smoking is merited.

Click here for full paper (Open Access).

Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Groundwater, Lakes, Soils, and Fish

Filipovic M, Woldegiorgis A, Norström K, Bibi M, Lindberg M, Osterås AH. Historical usage of aqueous film forming foam: A case study of the widespread distribution of perfluoroalkyl acids from a military airport to groundwater, lakes, soils and fish. Chemosphere 2014 Sep 24. pii: S0045-6535(14)01065-0. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.09.005.

Historical usage of aqueous film forming foams (AFFFs) at military airports is a potential source of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) to the nearby environment. In this study, the distribution of perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) in soil, groundwater, surface water, tap water well, and fish muscle was investigated at a closed down military airfield (F18) and its surroundings in Stockholm, Sweden. The presence of PFOS at AFFF training sites was inventoried. One major finding of the study is that a former airfield, abandoned since 1994, may still be a point source of PFAAs to nearby recipients. PFOS and PFOA were ubiquitous in the soil samples at former AFFF training sites with concentrations ranging from 2.18 to 8520ngg-1 dry weight and <0.12-287ngg-1 dry weight respectively. The sum of PFAAs in the groundwater and surface waters ranged from 738 to 51000ngL-1 and <MDL to 79.0ngL-1, respectively. PFOS in European perch ranged from 76.5 to 370ngg-1wet weight muscle tissue which is among the highest previously reported worldwide. Our results provide evidence that the historical use of AFFF at the site have contaminated an aquifer (7500 m3d-1), that will require constant PFAA purification before being used for drinking waterproduction. Despite the fact that the water turnover time in the investigated recipients (of 4-6months) suggest a depletion of PFAA-contaminants over a quarter of a decade, abandoned airfields may still pose an environmental and human health concern.

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Bacteria Detection Using Inkjet-Printed Test Strips

Innovative for sure.

Creran B, Li X, Duncan B, Kim CS, Moyano DF, Rotello VM. Detection of Bacteria Using Inkjet-Printed Enzymatic Test Strips. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2014 Oct 15.

Low-cost diagnostics for drinking water contamination have the potential to save millions of lives. We report the use of inkjet printing to co-pattern an enzyme-nanoparticle sensor complex and enzymatic substrate on a paper-based test strip for rapid detection of bacteria. A colorimetric response is generated on the paper substrate that allows direct visual detection of contamination, providing a viable nanomanufacturing strategy for low-cost bacterial detection.

Click here for full paper (fee).