Ekstrand KR, Qvist V. The impact of a national caries strategy in Greenland after 4 years. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry. 2014 Oct 17. doi: 10.1111/ipd.12138.
AIMS: (1) To describe dental health – and financial goals to be achieved with a national caries strategy in Greenland (CSG) implemented in 2008; (2) to describe the principles of CSG; (3) to report caries outcome data for the 3-and 9-year-olds in 1996, in 2008 (baseline), and in 2012; and (4) to assess the effect of CSG on the same age.
GOALS AND RESULTS: Ad (1) Caries status recorded ≥85% of the children; 3-year-olds in 2012:defs = 0 ≥ 80%, defs > 8 ≤ 5%; 9-year-olds in 2012: DMFS = 0 ≥ 80%;DMFS > 4 ≤ 5%. CSG should not increase the cost compared to the old programme. Ad (2) CSG focused on predetermined visits/examinations, risk-related visits, oral health promotion, and predetermined fluoride and sealing policies. Ad (3) 75% and 88% of the total cohorts of 3- and 9-year-olds in 2012 were recorded, respectively. Seventy-six percent of the 3-year-olds showed defs = 0 in 2012 compared to 64% in 2008 (P < 0.0001). DMFS = 0 data for the 9-year-olds were 65% vs 57% (P = 0.003). The cost for running CSG was comparable to the cost before 2008. Ad (4) The annual percentage increase of children with defs/DMFS = 0 after implementation of CSG was twice as high as during 1996-2008.
CONCLUSION: The caries status improves significantly from 2008 to 2012 exemplified in the 3- and 9-year-olds without increasing the costs.
Posted in Fluoride
Lin T, Cai B, Chen W. Limnoithona sinensis as refuge for bacteria: protection from UV radiation and chlorine disinfection in drinking water treatment. Canadian journal of microbiology. 2014 Sep 18:1-8.
In this study, we tested the potential of Limnoithona sinensis to provide its attached bacteria refuge against disinfection. The experimental results indicated that in water devoid of zooplankton, both UV radiation and chlorine disinfection significantly decreased the viability of free-living bacteria. In the presence of L. sinensis, however, the attached bacteria could survive and rapidly recover from disinfection. This demonstrated that L. sinensis provided protection from external damage to various aquatic bacteria that were attached to its body. The surviving bacteria remained on L. sinensis after disinfection exposure, which enabled a rapid increase in the bacterial population followed by their subsequent release into the surrounding water. Compared with UV radiation, chlorine disinfection was more effective in terms of inactivating attached bacteria. Both UV radiation and chlorine disinfection had little effect in terms of preventing the spread of undesirable bacteria, due to the incomplete inactivation of the bacteria associated with L. sinensis.
Expanding access to household electricity will have a direct impact on the welfare of the residents and at the same time a trivial impact on carbon dioxide emisisons. An interesting study. In this study, it appears that sustainable development means “without carbon”. The suggestion that carbon should be avoided so that “lock-in” is prevented is counter productive.
Shonali Pachauri. Household electricity access a trivial contributor to CO2 emissions growth in India Nature Climate Change (2014) doi:10.1038/nclimate2414
Impetus to expand electricity access in developing nations is urgent1. Yet aspirations to provide universal access to electricity are often considered potentially conflicting with efforts to mitigate climate change2. How much newly electrified, largely poor, households raise emissions, however, remains uncertain. Results from a first retrospective analysis show that improvements in household electricity access contributed 3–4% of national emissions growth in India over the past three decades. Emissions from both the direct and indirect electricity use of more than 650 million people connected since 1981 accounted for 11–25% of Indian emissions growth or, on average, a rise of 0.008–0.018 tons of CO2 per person per year between 1981 and 2011. Although this is a marginal share of global emissions, it does not detract from the importance for developing countries to start reducing the carbon intensities of their electricity generation to ensure sustainable development and avoid future carbon lock-in3, 4. Significant ancillary benefits for air quality, health, energy security and efficiency may also make this attractive for reasons other than climate mitigation alone5, 6.
Posted in Climate
Garboś S, Swiecicka D. Human exposure to silver released from silver-modified activated carbon applied in the new type of jug filter systems. Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny. 2013;64(1):31-6.
BACKGROUND: A water filtered by jug filter system (JFS) can be applied for the preparation of food products, as well as it can be directly consumed as drinking water. In the European Union, in both above-mentioned cases the quality of water filtered using JFSs has to fulfill the requirements listed in Directive 98/83/EC. However, Directive 98/83/EC sets no parametric value for silver, JFSs are not regulated under this legislative act and additionally, silver-modified activated carbon (applied in such systems) has not been approved by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). Therefore, the exposure to this metal should be assessed for all JFSs containing filtration cartridges with silver-modified activated carbon, present on the retail market.
OBJECTIVE: A comprehensive study was conducted in order to examine the effect ofJFSs (consisted of filtration oval-cartridges of the new type with silver-modified activated carbon) on the quality of filtered water regarding the released amounts of silver. Silver migration from such type of cartridges has not been examined before. The aim of work was the assessment of exposure to silver released into filtered water from silver-modified activated carbon applied in such types of FSs.
MATERIAL AND METHODS: Silver migration from six brands of JFSs (A-F) was investigated according to British Standard BS 8427:2004 using a validated inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method.
RESULTS: The average daily silver concentrations in the composite samples collected on six measurement days for A, B, C, D, E and F JFSs were in the ranges of: 3.95-18.1 microg/l, 4.6-21.7 microg/l, 0.41-8.7 microLg/l, 6.9-10.9 microg/l, 3.3-17.1 microg/1 and 10.1-20.8 pg/1l, respectively. The established grand mean concentrations of released silver from all six oval cartridges were in the range of 2.7-14.3 jg/1. The estimated Hazard Quotient (HQ) indices were in the range of 0.015-0.082
CONCLUSIONS:. The estimated HQ indices were significantly lower than 1 and therefore no long-term risk for human health could be expected. All the investigated JFSs of the new type meet previously established provisional migration limit for silver from such systems–25 microg/L.
Nissensohn M, Castro-Quezada I, Serra-Majem L. Beverage and water intake of healthy adults in some European countries. Int J Food Sci Nutr. 2013 Nov;64(7):801-5. doi: 10.3109/09637486.2013.801406. Epub 2013 Jun 3.
INTRODUCTION: Nutritional surveys frequently collect some data of consumption of beverages; however, information from different sources and different methodologies raises issues of comparability. The main objective of this review was to examine the available techniques used for assessing beverage intake in European epidemiological studies and to describe the most frequent method applied to assess it.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Information of beverage intake available from European surveys and nutritional epidemiological investigations was obtained from gray literature.
RESULTS: Twelve articles were included and relevant data were extracted. The studies were carried out on healthy adults by different types of assessments. The most frequent tool used was a 7-d dietary record. Only Germany used a specific beverage assessment tool (Beverage Dietary History).
CONCLUSION: From the limited data available and the diversity of the methodology used, the results show that consumption of beverages is different between countries. Current epidemiological studies in Europe focusing on beverage intake are scarce. Further research is needed to clarify the amount of beverage intake in European population.
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Trotti F, Caldognetto E, Forte M, Nuccetelli C, Risica S, Rusconi R. Estonian waterworks treatment plants: clearance of residues, discharge of effluents and efficiency of removal of radium from drinking water. Journal of Radiological Protection, 2013 Dec;33(4):809-22. doi: 10.1088/0952-4746/33/4/809.
Considerable levels of radium were detected in a certain fraction of the Estonian drinking water supply network. Some of these waterworks have treatment systems for the removal of (mainly) iron and manganese from drinking water. Three of these waterworks and another one equipped with a radium removal pilot plant were examined, and a specific study was conducted in order to assess the environmental compatibility of effluents and residues produced in the plants. (226)Ra and (228)Ra activity concentrations were analysed in both liquid (backwash water) and solid (sand filter and sediment) materials to evaluate their compliance, from the radiological point of view, with current Estonian legislation and international technical documents that propose reference levels for radium in effluents and residues. Also with regard to water treatment by-products, a preliminary analysis was done of possible consequences of the transposition of the European Basic Safety Standards Draft into Estonian law. Radium removal efficiency was also tested in the same plants. Iron and manganese treatment plants turned out to be scarcely effective, whilst the radium mitigation pilot plant showed a promising performance.