Daily Archives: October 27, 2014

Ebola Virus Origin and Transmission, 2014 Outbreak

Stephen K. Gire, et al. Genomic surveillance elucidates Ebola virus origin and transmission during the 2014 outbreak . Science, 12 September 2014: Vol. 345, no. 6202, 1369-1372. DOI: 10.1126/science.1259657

In its largest outbreak, Ebola virus disease is spreading through Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Nigeria. We sequenced 99 Ebola virus genomes from 78 patients in Sierra Leone to ~2000× coverage. We observed a rapid accumulation of interhost and intrahost genetic variation, allowing us to characterize patterns of viral transmission over the initial weeks of the epidemic. This West African variant likely diverged from central African lineages around 2004, crossed from Guinea to Sierra Leone in May 2014, and has exhibited sustained human-to-human transmission subsequently, with no evidence of additional zoonotic sources. Because many of the mutations alter protein sequences and other biologically meaningful targets, they should be monitored for impact on diagnostics, vaccines, and therapies critical to outbreak response.

Click here for full paper (fee).

Public Comment Period Begins for CCL3 Preliminary Determinations

ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY
40 CFR Part 141
[EPA–HQ–OW–2012–0155; FRL–9917–87–OW]

Announcement of Preliminary Regulatory Determinations for Contaminants on the Third Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List

AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

ACTION: Request for public comment.

SUMMARY: The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), as amended in 1996, requires the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to make regulatory determinations every five years on at least five unregulated contaminants. A regulatory determination is a decision about whether or not to begin the process to propose and promulgate a national primary drinking water regulation (NPDWR) for an unregulated contaminant. These unregulated contaminants are chosen from the Contaminant Candidate List (CCL), which SDWA requires the agency to publish every five years. EPA published the third CCL (CCL 3) in the Federal Register on October 8, 2009. This notice presents the preliminary regulatory determinations and supporting rationale for 5 of the 116 contaminants listed on CCL 3. The agency is making preliminary determinations to regulate one contaminant (i.e., strontium) and to not regulate four contaminants (i.e., 1,3-dinitrobenzene, dimethoate, terbufos and terbufos sulfone). EPA seeks comment on these preliminary determinations.

DATES: Comments must be received on or before December 19, 2014, 60 days after publication in the Federal Register.

ADDRESSES: Submit your comments, identified by Docket ID No. EPA–HQ–OW–2012–0155, by one of the following methods:

http://www.regulations.gov: Follow the online instructions for submitting comments.

• Mail: Water Docket, Environmental Protection Agency, Mailcode: [28221T], 1200 Pennsylvania Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20460.

• Hand Delivery: EPA Docket Center, [EPA/DC] EPA West, Room 3334, 1301 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC. Such deliveries are only accepted during the Docket’s normal hours of operation, and special arrangements should be made for deliveries of boxed information.

Instructions: Direct your comments to Docket ID No. EPA–HQ–OW–2012–0155. EPA’s policy is that all comments received will be included in the public docket without change and may be made available online at http://www.regulations.gov, including any personal information provided, unless the comment includes information claimed to be Confidential Business Information (CBI) or other information whose disclosure is restricted by statute. Do not submit information that you consider to be CBI or otherwise protected through http://www.regulations.gov. The http://www.regulations.gov Web site is an ‘‘anonymous access’’ system, which means EPA will not know your identity or contact information unless you provide it in the body of your comment. If you send an email comment directly to EPA without going through http://www.regulations.gov your email address will be automatically captured and included as part of the comment that is placed in the public docket and made available on the Internet. If you submit an electronic comment, EPA recommends that you include your name and other contact information in the body of your comment and with any disk or CD–ROM you submit. If EPA cannot read your comment due to technical difficulties and cannot contact you for clarification, EPA may not be able to consider your comment. Electronic files should avoid the use of
special characters, any form of encryption, and be free of any defects or viruses. For additional information about EPA’s public docket visit the EPA
Docket Center homepage at http://www.epa.gov/epahome/dockets.htm.
For additional instructions on submitting comments, go to Section I.B of the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section of this document.

Docket: All documents in the docket are listed in the http://www.regulations.gov
index. Although listed in the index, some information is not publicly
available, e.g., CBI or other information whose disclosure is restricted by statute. Certain other material, such as copyrighted material, will be publicly
available only in hard copy. Publicly available docket materials are available
either electronically in http://www.regulations.gov or in hard copy at the Water Docket, EPA/DC, EPA West, Room 3334, 1301 Constitution Ave. NW., Washington, DC. The Public Reading Room is open from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m., Monday through Friday, excluding legal holidays. The telephone number for the Public Reading Room is (202) 566–1744, and the telephone number for the Water Docket is (202) 566–2426.

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:
Zeno Bain, Standards and Risk Management Division, Office of Ground
Water and Drinking Water, Office of Water (Mailcode 4607M), Environmental Protection Agency, 1200 Pennsylvania Ave. NW., Washington, DC 20460; telephone number: (202) 564–5970; email address: bain.zeno@epa.gov. For general information, contact the Safe Drinking Water Hotline, telephone number: (800) 426–4791. The Safe Drinking Water Hotline is open Monday through Friday, excluding legal holidays, from 10 a.m. to 4 p.m. Eastern time.

Sodium Fluoride Toxicity in the Kidney of Rats

Song GH, Gao JP, Wang CF, Chen CY, Yan XY, Guo M, Wang Y, Huang FB. Sodium fluoride induces apoptosis in the kidney of rats through caspase-mediated pathways and DNA damage. J Physiol Biochem 2014 Sep; Vol. 70 (3), 857-68.

Long-term excessive sodium fluoride (NaF) intake can cause many bone diseases and nonskeletal fluorosis. The kidneys are the primary organs involved in the excretion and retention of NaF. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of NaF treatment on renal cell apoptosis, DNA damage, and the protein expression levels of cytosolic cytochrome C (Cyt C) and cleaved caspases 9, 8, and 3 in vivo. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into four groups (control, low fluoride, medium fluoride, and high fluoride) and administered 0, 50, 100, and 200 mg/L of NaF, respectively, via drinking water for 120 days. Histopathological changes in the kidneys were visualized using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Renal cell apoptosis was examined using flow cytometry, and renal cell DNA damage was detected using the comet assay. Cytosolic Cyt C and cleaved caspases 9, 8, and 3 protein expression levels were visualized using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The results showed that NaF treatment increased apoptosis and DNA damage. In addition, NaF treatment increased the protein expression levels of cytosolic Cyt C and cleaved caspases 9, 8, and 3. These results indicated that NaF induces apoptosis in the kidney of rats through caspase-mediated pathway, and DNA damage may be involved in this process.