This is an irrational decision by the New York state government and will cause more harm than help the cause of these two women.
“The New York state government has fined Cynthia and Robert Gifford, the owners of Liberty Ridge Farm, $13,000 because they refused to hold a same-sex wedding ceremony on their property.” click here
Dimcevici PN, Bălălău C, Nimigean VR, Nimigean V, Ion I, Baconi D, Bârcă M, Băran PV.Histopathological changes of renal tissue following sodium fluoride administration in two consecutive generations of mice. Correlation with the urinary elimination of fluoride.Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology. 2014;55(2):343-9.
The present study was designed to investigate the toxic effects (evaluated as histopathological changes) of sodium fluoride on the kidney in two consecutive generations of NMRI mice. An attempt to correlate the toxicity with the urinary elimination offluoride has been made, as urinary fluoride excretion has been widely used as an indicator of fluoride intake and exposure. Six mixed (males and females) animal groups have been constituted by dividing the populations of mice derived from pregnant females (named “mothers” 0.5 mg sodium fluoride) treated with 0.5 mg sodium fluoride by daily gavage and pregnant females (named “mothers” 0.25 mg sodium fluoride) treated with 0.25 mg sodium fluoride by daily gavage; three types of sodium fluoridetreatments were administrated: homeopathic, allopathic-homeopathic and allopathic. When the animals reached the adulthood, by randomization, they were selected in pairs for giving birth to the second generation of mice. No treatments were administrated to the second generation of mice; thus, the urinary elimination of fluoride in the second generation is attributed to exposure at sodium fluoride before birth. The administration of sodium fluoride to the first generation (F1) is realized until the mice reached the adulthood. For the first generation, the urine was collected at three times, every three weeks: at the age of four weeks, seven weeks and 11 weeks; single sampling urine, at the age of four weeks, has been conducted for the second generation. The urine samples have been analyzed using the ion selective electrode method for fluoride. For the histopathological examination, the animals were killed by cervical dislocation; the kidneys were collected in a 10% formalin solution. The preparation of samples for optical microscopy was realized with Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. The results indicate that the elimination of fluoride was similar (at the second evaluation, at 7-week-old of the first generation) for the both generations of mice. Histopathological observation of the kidney has revealed granular dystrophy of the renal tubules, necrosis of the endothelial cells and of the mesangial cells of renal glomerulus. The study indicates that different sodium fluoridetreatments produce some pathological aspects of the kidneys and influence the urinary elimination of fluoride in two consecutive generations of mice. For the higher doses, the pathological changes of the kidney are more important, and the urinary elimination of fluoride is higher, especially for the allopathic doses.
Gathering data is the easy part (as difficult as it is). It’s the interpretation where the fun starts. Take this article for example. PNAS begins its “Significance” section with this:
“The Greenhouse Effect is well-established. Increased concentration of greenhouse gases, such as CO2, reduce the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) to space; thus, energy accumulates in the climate system, and the planet warms.”
This explanation sets up the interpretation of the study yet it is simply a story or narrative. It serves as an interpretive framework yet leads the reader in only one direction. Lastly, saying in theory the greenhouse effect is possible or that energy “accumulates” is rather simplistic and does not make it so in reality.
Aaron Donohoe, Kyle C. Armour, Angeline G. Pendergrass, and David S. Battisti. Shortwave and longwave radiative contributions to global warming under increasing CO2 . Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1412190111
In response to increasing concentrations of atmospheric CO2, high-end general circulation models (GCMs) simulate an accumulation of energy at the top of the atmosphere not through a reduction in outgoing longwave radiation (OLR)—as one might expect from greenhouse gas forcing—but through an enhancement of net absorbed solar radiation (ASR). A simple linear radiative feedback framework is used to explain this counterintuitive behavior. It is found that the timescale over which OLR returns to its initial value after a CO2 perturbation depends sensitively on the magnitude of shortwave (SW) feedbacks. If SW feedbacks are sufficiently positive, OLR recovers within merely several decades, and any subsequent global energy accumulation is because of enhanced ASR only. In the GCM mean, this OLR recovery timescale is only 20 y because of robust SW water vapor and surface albedo feedbacks. However, a large spread in the net SW feedback across models (because of clouds) produces a range of OLR responses; in those few models with a weak SW feedback, OLR takes centuries to recover, and energy accumulation is dominated by reduced OLR. Observational constraints of radiative feedbacks—from satellite radiation and surface temperature data—suggest an OLR recovery timescale of decades or less, consistent with the majority of GCMs. Altogether, these results suggest that, although greenhouse gas forcing predominantly acts to reduce OLR, the resulting global warming is likely caused by enhanced ASR.
Click here for paper (fee).
We’ve known for quite some time that citrate can increase aluminum absorption from food and drinking water. People with Chronic Kidney Disease will be at a higher risk of aluminum toxicity as a result.
Gupta A. Ferric citrate hydrate as a phosphate binder and risk of aluminum toxicity. Pharmaceuticals (Basel, Switzerland). 2014 Sep 26;7(10):990-8. doi: 10.3390/ph7100990.
Ferric citrate hydrate was recently approved in Japan as an oral phosphate binder to be taken with food for the control of hyperphosphatemia in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The daily therapeutic dose is about 3 to 6 g, which comprises about 2 to 4 g of citrate. Oral citrate solubilizes aluminum that is present in food and drinking water, and opens the tight junctions in the intestinal epithelium, thereby increasing aluminum absorption and urinary excretion. In healthy animals drinking tap water, oral citrate administration increased aluminum absorption and, over a 4-week period, increased aluminum deposition in brain and bone by about 2- and 20-fold, respectively. Renal excretion of aluminum is impaired in patients with chronic kidney disease, thereby increasing the risk of toxicity. Based on human and animal studies it can be surmised that patients with CKD who are treated with ferric citrate hydrate to control hyperphosphatemia are likely to experience enhanced absorption of aluminum from food and drinking water, thereby increasing the risk of aluminum overload and toxicity.
Click here for paper (Open Access).
Rożej A, Cydzik-Kwiatkowska A, Kowalska B, Kowalski D. Structure and microbial diversity of biofilms on different pipe materials of a model drinking water distribution systems. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology. 2014 Oct 24.
The experiment was conducted in three model drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) made of unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC), silane cross-linked polyethylene (PEX) and high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipes to which tap water was introduced. After 2 years of system operation, microbial communities in the DWDSs were characterized with scanning electron microscopy, heterotrophic plate count, and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The most extensive biofilms were found in HDPE pipes where bacteria were either attached to mineral deposits or immersed in exopolymers. On PEX surfaces, bacteria did not form large aggregates; however, they were present in the highest number (1.24 × 107 cells cm-2). PVC biofilm did not contain mineral deposits but was made of single cells with a high abundance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which can be harmful to human health. The members of Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were found in all biofilms and the water phase. Sphingomonadales and Methylophilaceae bacteria were found only in PEX samples, whereas Geothrix fermentans, which can reduce Fe(III), were identified only in PEX biofilm. The DNA sequences closely related to the members of Alphaproteobacteria were the most characteristic and intense amplicons detected in the HDPE biofilm.
Click here for full paper (Open Access).