Yes, climates are changing. But a political deal such as this (click here) will have no impact whatsoever on preventing or avoiding changes in climate, is not realistically achievable, and does not address the underlying problems. It is simply more hubris from the climate elite.
It may be a “game changer” to some people, but it is change in the wrong direction. In effect, it is simply blowing political smoke to generate more public relations spin than substance. Not sure about this? Forget what the press is saying and read the deal for yourself: U.S.-China Joint Announcement on Climate Change Others are noting the same (e.g. here)
Wigen TI, Wang NJ. Does early establishment of favorable oral health behavior influence caries experience at age 5 years? Acta odontologica Scandinavica 2014 Nov 11:1-6.
Objective. The purpose was to study associations between tooth brushing frequency, use of fluoride lozenges and consumption of sugary drinks at 1.5 years of age and having caries experience at 5 years of age.
Methods. This study was based on data from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted by the Norwegian Institute of Public Health and by the Public Dental Services. A total of 1095 children were followed from pregnancy to the age of 5 years. Questionnaires regarding oral health behavior were completed by the parents at 1.5 and 5 years of age. Clinical and radiographic examination of the children was performed at the age of 5 years.
Results. In multiple logistic regression, having caries experience at 5 years of age was associated with; at 1.5 years of age having the teeth brushed less than twice daily (OR = 2.1, CI = 1.3-3.6) and being offered sugary drinks at least once a week (OR = 1.8, CI = 1.1-2.9) when controlled for family characteristics and oral health behavior at 5 years of age.
Conclusions. Tooth brushing frequency and consumption of sugary drinks in early childhood were related to caries development during pre-school age, independent of family characteristics and oral health behavior at 5 years of age. The results indicate that early established habits regarding tooth brushing and consumption of sugary drinks have long-term effects on caries development. Parents encountering difficulties in establishing favorable oral health behavior in children’s first years of life should receive special attention from health personnel.
The full paper is here (fee).
Posted in Fluoride
Ghosh A, Mukherjee K, Ghosh S, Saha B. Sources and toxicity of fluoride in the environment. Research on Chemical Intermediates; Sep2013, Vol. 39 Issue 7, p2881-2915
Fluoride, a naturally occurring element, exists in combination with other elements as a fluoride compound, and is found naturally in water, foods, soil, and several minerals such as fluorite and fluorapatite. Fluoride normally enters the environment and human body through water, food, industrial exposure, drugs, cosmetics, etc. However, fluoride (F) contamination in groundwater has been recognized as a serious problem worldwide. The World Health Organization’s specified tolerance limit of fluoride in drinking water is 1.5 mg/L. Human disease caused by fluoride manifests itself in three forms: dental, skeletal, and non-skeletal fluorosis. Apart from teeth and bones, the interaction and involvement of soft tissues, organs, and other systems of the body with fluoride leads to non-skeletal fluorosis. It leads to many bone diseases, mottling of teeth, and lesions of the endocrine glands, thyroid, liver, kidney, and other organs. Fluoride ion concentration in drinking water can be easily estimated by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. Various defluoridation techniques have been developed to reduce the fluoride content to the desired level including principally membrane and adsorption processes. Biosorption is still one of the most extensively used methods for defluoridation of drinking water due to it being cost-free or low cost and because of its viability.