Daily Archives: November 18, 2014

Prejudice in the Press on “Climate Change”

“The fact that the liberal skewed media refuses to look at both sides of the climate argument should be evidence enough that they realize global warming theory is flawed. But as one who likes to use facts, below are twelve facts the mainstream media isn’t telling you about climate change. They may not make one believe that global warming is a fraud, but they should at least destroy the argument that climate change is settled science.” click here for some Hot Air.

EPA chief Plays Word-Games with “Climate”

It is not possible for human activity in some ways to not affect climate. The equivocation in such statements below is simply a word-game. The statement is not relevant to the issues at hand.

“Environmental Protection Agency chief Gina McCarthy told reporters Monday morning that the so-called pause in global warming was not representative of the broader trends in climate, which she says point to global warming.

“That is a short-lived issue that doesn’t represent climate,” McCarthy told reporters at a breakfast hosted by the Christian Science Monitor, adding that many other factors show the planet is changing because of human influence– though she did not elaborate on this point because the breakfast was nearing its end.” click here

Fukushima Radionuclide Emssions

Georg Steinhauser. Fukushima’s Forgotten Radionuclides: A Review of the Understudied Radioactive Emissions. Environ. Sci. Technol. DOI: 10.1021/es405654c

In environmental monitoring campaigns for anthropogenic radionuclides released in the course of the Fukushima nuclear accident (2011), most focus had been on gamma-emitting radionuclides. More than 99% of the released activity was due to radionuclides of the elements Kr, Te, I, Xe, and Cs. However, little work had been done on the monitoring of radionuclides other than 131I, 132Te, 134Cs, 136Cs, and 137Cs. Radionuclides such as those of less volatile elements (e.g., 89Sr, 90Sr, 103Ru, 106Ru, plutonium), pure beta-emitters (3H, 14C, 35S), gaseous radionuclides (85Kr, 133Xe, 135Xe) or radionuclides with very long half-lives (e.g., 36Cl, 99Tc, 129I, some actinides such as 236U) have been understudied by comparison. In this review, we summarize previous monitoring work on these “orphan” radionuclides in various environmental media and outline further challenges for future monitoring campaigns. Some of the understudied radionuclides are of radiological concern, others are promising tracers for environmental, geochemical processes such as oceanic mixing. Unfortunately, the shorter-lived nuclides of radioxenon, 103Ru, 89Sr and 35S will no longer exhibit detectable activities in the environment. Activity concentrations of other radionuclides such as tritium, 14C, or 85Kr will become blurred in the significant background of previous releases (nuclear explosions and previous accidents). Isotope ratios such as 240Pu/239Pu will allow for the identification of Fukushima plutonium despite the plutonium background.

Click here for full article (fee).

Can Back Radiation From a “Cold” Object Make Something Warm Hotter Still?

A discussion of this question has appeared on several blogs recently. Here is one:

“It’s where the whole incorrect idea of backradiation heating arises and all of the various arguments about cold helping to make something warmer hotter still.” click here

Enteric Viruses: Pathogenicity, Transmission, Significance

A very nice review of enteric viruses in  food and water. And Open Access as well.

M.J. Carter A REVIEW: Enterically infecting viruses: pathogenicity, transmission and significance for food and waterborne infection. Journal of Applied Microbiology 2005, 98, 1354–1380 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2672.2005.02635.x

Enterically infecting viruses are ubiquitous agents, mostly inducing silent infections. Several are however associated with significant diseases in man from diarrhoea and vomiting to hepatitis and meningitis. These viruses are drawn from a variety of virus families and have different structures and genetic material, yet all are suited to this means of transmission: Normally they are shed in high numbers (assisting environmental transit) and exhibit great particle stability (permitting survival both outside the body and on passage through the stomach). Human activities particularly associated with food and water processing and distribution have the capacity to influence the epidemiology of these viruses. This review provides a description of viruses spreading by these means, their significance as pathogens and considers their behavior in these human-assisted processes.

Click here for paper (Open Access).

Fluoride Chronic Effects Benchmark for Freshwater Aquatic Life

McPherson CA, Lee DH, Chapman PM. Development of a fluoride chronic effects benchmark for aquatic life in freshwater. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 2014 Nov;33(11):2621-7. doi: 10.1002/etc.2724.

Canada has an interim water-quality guideline for fluoride for protection of freshwater aquatic life that dates from 2002, and 1 Canadian province has a different interim water-quality guideline for fluoride that dates to 1995. The United States does not have a national benchmark for fluoride in freshwater, and only 1 US state has such a benchmark. There are no other national or regional benchmarks for fluoride chronic toxicity in freshwater. In the present study, available data on the acute and chronic toxicity of fluoride to freshwater aquatic life were compiled and reviewed. Acute toxicity was reported to occur at concentrations ranging from 11.5 to >800 mg/L fluoride(F(-) ). The majority of chronic effects occur at concentrations between 1.8 mg/L and 195 mg/L. A total of 10 chronic studies representing 16 species (5 fish, 7 invertebrates, and 4 algae/aquatic plants) were used to derive a chronic effects benchmark of 1.94 mg/L F(-) , applying the species sensitivity distribution approach.