Daily Archives: November 19, 2014

The National Climate Data Center (NCDC) Fudges the Data

I’ve watched this happen first hand at a university where data was adjusted or thrown out as an outlier without justification. It is a very big temptation. But the NCDC is fooling itself. click here for the evidence.

Effect of Fluoride on Lung Irreversible?

Hmmm. I wonder…. According to the paper: “Sodium fluoride was supplied as powder (Cornell Lab). It was dissolved in distilled water and given in a dose of 2.5 mg/rat/24 h.”

Abdel-Gawad FA, Ashmawy MH, Zaki SM, Abdel-Fatah GH. Lung damage after long-term exposure of adult rats to sodium highlight fluoride. Archives of Medical Science. 2014 Oct 27;10(5):1035-40. doi: 10.5114/aoms.2014.46221.

INTRODUCTION: Fluorides, when taken in amounts exceeding the standard therapeutic dosage, are regarded as toxic substances. Chronic fluorosis causes marked destruction of lung tissues. The study aimed to determine whether the effect of a chronic toxic dose of sodium fluoride on the lung of an adult male albino rat is reversible or irreversible. This was done through light and electron microscopic studies. Morphometric study was also done.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty adult male rats were used. The animals were divided into 3 groups: control group; group I (chronic fluorosis group) in which sodium fluoride was given daily for 3 months; and group II (recovery group) in which sodium fluoride was given daily for 3 months and after that the rats survived for another month.

RESULTS: The lung of group I was characterized by presence of blood and lymph congestion. Thickening of alveolar septa was also observed with rupture of septa and widening of the air spaces. The area % of collagen (1.13 ±0.5), septal wall thickness (13.47 ±6.1), and number of macrophages (5 ±2.5) increased in comparison to the control group (p ≤ 0.05). With discontinuation of sodium fluoride (group II), no much improvement was observed.

CONCLUSIONS: Chronic fluorosis has many pathological effects on the lung which are irreversible.

Click here for full paper (Open Access).

Coliphage as Human-Virus Surrogates

Gerba CP, Abd-Elmaksoud S, Newick H, El-Esnawy NA, Barakat A, Ghanem H. Assessment of Coliphage Surrogates for Testing Drinking Water Treatment Devices. Food and Environmental Virology. 2014 Nov 16.

Test protocols have been developed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and the World Health Organization (WHO) to test water treatment devices/systems that are used at the individual and home levels to ensure the removal of waterborne viruses. The goal of this study was to assess if coliphage surrogates could be used in this testing in place of the currently required use of animal or human enteric viruses. Five different coliphages (MS-2, PRD1, ΦX-174, Qβ, and fr) were compared to the removal of poliovirus type 1 (LSc-2ab) by eight different water treatment devices/systems using a general case and a challenge case (high organic load, dissolved solids, and turbidity) test water as defined by the USEPA. The performance of the units was rated as a pass/fail based on a 4 log removal/inactivation of the viruses. In all cases, a failure or a pass of the units/system for poliovirus also corresponded to a pass/fail by all of the coliphages. In summary, in using pass/fail criteria as recommended under USEPA guidelines for testing water treatment device/systems, the use of coliphages should be considered as an alternative to reduce cost and time of testing such devices/systems.

Click here for paper (fee).