Daily Archives: November 21, 2014

Dr. Tim Ball: Factual Science Omitted by Politicians and Academia Who Prosper From Alarmism

West Bengal, India Fluoride Exposure

Samal AC, Bhattacharya P, Mallick A, Ali MM, Pyne J, Santra SC. A study to investigate fluoride contamination and fluoride exposure dose assessment in lateritic zones of West Bengal, India. Environmental Science and Pollution Research International. 2014 Nov 19.

To assess the status of severity of fluoride contamination in lateritic Bankura and Purulia districts of West Bengal, concentrations of fluoride in different water sources and agricultural field soils were investigated. The fluoride content (mg/l) was observed to differ with aquifer depths: 0.19-0.47 in dug wells, 0.01-0.17 in shallow tube wells, and 0.07-1.6 in deep tube wells. Fluoride within the World Health Organization (WHO) prescribed range (1.0-1.5 mg/l) was estimated only in ~17 % of the total collected water samples while ~67 % showed <0.7 mg/l fluoride and thus may impede in the production and maintenance of healthy teeth and bones of the residents, especially children. Fluoride in water was found to be significantly correlated (r = 0.63) with pH. The exposure dose of fluoride (mg/kg/day) from drinking water in infants, children, and adults was estimated in the ranges 0.02-0.53, 0.01-0.24, and 0.01-0.14, respectively against the standard value of 0.05. A clear risk of dental fluorosis is apparent in infants and children of the study area. The fluoride in soil (55-399 mg/kg) was detected to be significantly correlated with the fluoride content in deep tube wells and soil pH (r = 0.56 and 0.71, respectively). The relationships of soil fluoride with total hardness and that with phosphate were not significant. There is a high possibility of bioaccumulation of fluoride from contaminated soil and water of the study area to cultivated crops. This will enhance the quantity of fluoride intake into human food chain in addition to drinking water pathway.

Color, Iron, and Organic Carbon in Swedish Watercourses

Temnerud J, Hytteborn JK, Futter MN, Köhler SJ. Evaluating common drivers for color, iron and organic carbon in Swedish watercourses. Ambio. 2014 Dec;43 Suppl 1:30-44. doi: 10.1007/s13280-014-0560-5.

The recent browning (increase in color) of surface waters across much of the northern hemisphere has important implications for light climate, ecosystem functioning, and drinking water treatability. Using log-linear regressions and long-term (6-21 years) data from 112 Swedish watercourses, we identified temporal and spatial patterns in browning-related parameters [iron, absorbance, and total organic carbon (TOC)]. Flow variability and lakes in the catchment were major influences on all parameters. Co-variation between seasonal, discharge-related, and trend effects on iron, TOC, and absorbance were dependent on pH, landscape position, catchment size, latitude, and dominant land cover. Large agriculture-dominated catchments had significantly larger trends in iron, TOC, and water color than small forest catchments. Our results suggest that while similarities exist, no single mechanism can explain the observed browning but show that multiple mechanisms related to land cover, climate, and acidification history are responsible for the ongoing browning of surface waters.

Click here for paper (Open Access).