Daily Archives: November 22, 2014

Arctic Norway Sea-Levels Have Declined

Reconstruction studies such as these are speculative. But if they are to be used then both sides of the story must be told. In this case, sea levels have been declining.

Robert L. Barnett, W. Roland Gehrels, Dan J. Charman, Margot H. Saher, William A. Marshall. Late Holocene sea-level change in Arctic Norway. Quaternary Science Reviews 107 (2015) 214e230

Relative sea-level data from the pre-industrial era are required for validating geophysical models of glacio-isostatic adjustment as well as for testing models used to make sea-level predictions based on future climate change scenarios. We present the first late Holocene (past ∼3300 years) relative sea-level reconstruction for northwestern Norway based on investigations in South Hinnøya in the Vesterålen – Lofoton archipelago. Sea-level changes are reconstructed from analyses of salt-marsh and estuarine sediments and the micro-organisms (foraminifera and testate amoebae) preserved within. The ‘indicative meaning’ of the microfauna is established from their modern distributions. Records are dated by radiocarbon,201Pb, 137Cs and chemostratigraphical analyses. Our results show a continuous relative sea-level decline of 0.7–0.9 mm yr−1 for South Hinnøya during the late Holocene. The reconstruction extends the relative sea-level trend recorded by local tide gauge data which is only available for the past ∼25 years. Our reconstruction demonstrates that existing models of shoreline elevations and GIA overpredict sea-level positions during the late Holocene. We suggest that models might be adjusted in order to reconcile modelled and reconstructed sea-level changes and ultimately improve understanding of GIA in Fennoscandia.

Click here for paper (Open Access).

 

Sodium Fluoride Uptake in Willow Trees

Clausen LP, Karlson UG, Trapp S. Phytotoxicity of Sodium Fluoride and Uptake of Fluoride in Willow Trees. Int J Phytoremediation. 2015 Apr 3;17(4):369-376.

The willow tree (Salix viminalis) toxicity test and a cress seed germination test (Lepidium sativum) were used to determine uptake of F and phytotoxicity of NaF. Concentrations in hydroponic solutions were 0-1000 mg F/L and 0-400 mg F/L in the preliminary and definitive test. A third test was done with soils collected from a fluoride-contaminated site at Fredericia, Denmark. The EC10, EC20 and EC50-values for inhibition of transpiration were determined to 38.0, 59.6 and 128.7 mg F/L, respectively. The toxicity test with soil showed strong inhibition for the sample with the highest fluoride concentration (405 mg free F per kg soil, 75 mg F per L soil solution). The seed germination and root elongation test with cress gave EC10, EC20 and EC50-values of 61.4, 105.0 and 262.8 mg F/L, respectively. At low external concentrations, fluoride was taken up more slowly than water and at high external concentrations at the same velocity. This indicates that an efflux pump becomes overloaded at concentrations above 210 mg F/L. Uptake kinetics were simulated with a non-linear mathematical model, and the Michaelis-Menten parameters were determined to half-saturation constant KM near 2 g F/L and maximum enzymatic removal rate vmax at 9 g/(kg d).

Click here for paper (fee).