Leung AM, Pearce EN, Braverman LE. Environmental perchlorate exposure: potential adverse thyroid effects. Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity. 2014 Oct;21(5):372-6. doi: 10.1097/MED.0000000000000090
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review will present a general overview of the sources, human studies, and proposed regulatory action regarding environmental perchlorate exposure.
RECENT FINDINGS: Some recent studies have reported significant associations between urinary perchlorate concentrations, thyroid dysfunction, and decreased infant intelligence quotient in groups who would be particularly susceptible to perchlorate effects. An update regarding the recently proposed regulatory actions and potential costs surrounding amelioration of perchlorate contamination is provided.
SUMMARY: The potential adverse thyroidal effects of environmental perchlorate exposure remain controversial, and further research is needed to further define its relationship to human health among pregnant and lactating women and their infants.
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Poghosyan A, Sturchio NC, Morrison CG, Beloso AD Jr, Guan Y, Eiler JM, Jackson WA, Hatzinger PB. Perchlorate in the Great Lakes: isotopic composition and origin. Environ Sci Technol. 2014 Oct 7;48(19):11146-53. doi: 10.1021/es502796d. Epub 2014 Sep 12.
Perchlorate is a persistent and mobile contaminant in the environment with both natural and anthropogenic sources. Stable isotope ratios of oxygen (δ(18)O, Δ(17)O) and chlorine (δ(37)Cl) along with the abundance of the radioactive isotope (36)Cl were used to trace perchlorate sources and behavior in the Laurentian Great Lakes. These lakes were selected for study as a likely repository of recent atmospheric perchlorate deposition. Perchlorate concentrations in the Great Lakes range from 0.05 to 0.13 μg per liter. δ(37)Cl values of perchlorate from the Great Lakes range from +3.0‰ (Lake Ontario) to +4.0‰ (Lake Superior), whereas δ(18)O values range from -4.1‰ (Lake Superior) to +4.0‰ (Lake Erie). Great Lakes perchlorate has mass-independent oxygen isotopic variations with positive Δ(17)O values (+1.6‰ to +2.7‰) divided into two distinct groups: Lake Superior (+2.7‰) and the other four lakes (∼+1.7‰). The stable isotopic results indicate that perchlorate in the Great Lakes is dominantly of natural origin, having isotopic composition resembling that measured for indigenous perchlorate from preindustrial groundwaters of the western USA. The (36)Cl/Cl ratio of perchlorate varies widely from 7.4 × 10(-12) (Lake Ontario) to 6.7 × 10(-11) (Lake Superior). These (36)ClO4(-) abundances are consistent with an atmospheric origin of perchlorate in the Great Lakes. The relatively high (36)ClO4(-) abundances in the larger lakes (Lakes Superior and Michigan) could be explained by the presence of (36)Cl-enriched perchlorate deposited during the period of elevated atmospheric (36)Cl activity following thermonuclear bomb tests in the Pacific Ocean.
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There is little benefit to reducing perchlorate in drinking water compared to the cost. The push for regulation is a political effort, not sound national regulatory policy.
Lutter R. An upper-bound assessment of the benefits of reducing perchlorate in drinking water. Risk analysis 2014 Oct;34(10):1944-56. doi: 10.1111/risa.12261. Epub 2014 Sep 5.
The Environmental Protection Agency plans to issue new federal regulations to limit drinking water concentrations of perchlorate, which occurs naturally and results from the combustion of rocket fuel. This article presents an upper-bound estimate of the potential benefits of alternative maximum contaminant levels for perchlorate in drinking water. The results suggest that the economic benefits of reducing perchlorate concentrations in drinking water are likely to be low, i.e., under $2.9 million per year nationally, for several reasons. First, the prevalence of detectable perchlorate in public drinking water systems is low. Second, the population especially sensitive to effects of perchlorate, pregnant women who are moderately iodide deficient, represents a minority of all pregnant women. Third, and perhaps most importantly, reducing exposure to perchlorate in drinking water is a relatively ineffective way of increasing iodide uptake, a crucial step linking perchlorate to health effects of concern.
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