The United Nations report this week saying that adaptation efforts in the developing world will be more costly than prior estimates continues to perpetuate a myth
of [about] “climate change”. By this I mean it fails to consider that climate has been changing since the beginning of time. Climate will be changing into the future until the end of time. And in between the beginning and the end humans have been and will be adapting. Indeed, the costs of adaptation are also always changing as the technology changes, climate changes, and prices go up or down locally, nationally, or globally. There is no “static” state from which the climate changes. Likewise, there is no “fixed” or uniform cost for adaptation from which to increase the cost. In reality, just about everything humans do is in one way or another related to climate and changes in climate.
Spending decisions are made every day by individuals, cities, counties, states, and countries to implement measures to adapt to climate. The UN continues to battle a fictitious “climate change” which in the end is simply fighting against the solar system (the sun) and natural processes. In reality, adaptation is already happening globally as climates change. Bottom line: It simply comes down to setting proper priorities and making sound policy and funding decisions.
that are already being made. Something that computer modelers have distorted and which the UN (and EPA) seem incapable or unwilling to do when it comes to climate.
“Efforts to adapt to climate change in the developing world could cost several times previous estimates, regardless of how successful negotiations are to reduce emissions, the United Nations said Dec. 5 at the Lima climate change conference.” click here
Yang L, Kim D, Uzun H, Karanfil T, Hur J. Assessing trihalomethanes (THMs) and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation potentials in drinking water treatment plants using fluorescence spectroscopy and parallel factor analysis. Chemosphere 2014 Dec 1. pii: S0045-6535(14)01351-4. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.11.033.
The formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) is a major challenge in drinking water treatments. This study explored the applicability of fluorescence excitation-emission matrices and parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC) for assessing the formation potentials (FPs) of trihalomethanes (THMs) and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), and the treatability of THM and NDMA precursors in nine drinking water treatment plants. Two humic-like and one tryptophan-like components were identified for the samples using PARAFAC. The total THM FP (TTHM FP) correlated strongly with humic-like component C2 (r=0.874), while NDMA FP showed a moderate and significant correlation with the tryptophan-like component C3 (r=0.628). The reduction by conventional treatment was more effective for C2 than C3, and for TTHM FP than NDMA FP. The treatability of DOM and TTHM FP correlated negatively with the absorption spectral slope (S275-295) and biological index (BIX) of the raw water, but it correlated positively with humification index (HIX). Our results demonstrated that PARAFAC components were valuable for assessing DBPs FP in drinking water treatments, and also that the raw water quality could affect the treatment efficiency.
Click here for paper (fee).
Eltzov E, Slobodnik V, Ionescu RE, Marks RS. On-line biosensor for the detection of putative toxicity in water contaminants. Talanta Volume 132, 15 January 2015, Pages 583–590
Potential threat on drinking water requires monitoring solutions, such as the one proposed herein, as a real-time, wide ranged, water monitoring system to detect the presence of toxicants in water. We studied the role of a selected number of parameters affecting performance and, thus, improved the prototype into an optimized next-generation device, resulting in enabling increased measurement duration, coupled with increased sensitivity. The chosen parameters in question were the peristaltic flow system, the fiber probe matrix stability through a re-design of the fiber probe holder and flow unit cell, as well as the modulation of bacterial medium concentration to increase bioreporter performance while keeping biofouling in check. Measurements were made with spiked samples and validated with polluted field-collected samples.
Article is here (fee).