T Gong, X Zhang. Detection, identification and formation of new iodinated disinfection byproducts in chlorinated saline wastewater effluents. Water Research 2015-01-01 68:77-86.
The use of seawater for toilet flushing introduces high levels of inorganic ions, including iodide ions, into a city’s wastewater treatment systems, resulting in saline wastewater effluents. Chlorination is widely used in disinfecting wastewater effluents owing to its low cost and high efficiency. During chlorination of saline wastewater effluents, iodide may be oxidized to hypoiodous acid, which may further react with effluent organic matter to form iodinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Iodinated DBPs show significantly higher toxicity than their brominated and chlorinated analogues and thus have been drawing increasing concerns. In this study, polar iodinated DBPs were detected in chlorinated saline wastewater effluents using a novel precursor ion scan method. The major polar iodinated DBPs were identified and quantified, and their organic precursors and formation pathways were investigated. The formation of iodinated DBPs under different chlorine doses and contact times was also studied. The results indicated that a few polar iodinated DBPs were generated in the chlorinated saline primary effluent, but few were generated in the chlorinated saline secondary effluent. Several major polar iodinated DBPs in the chlorinated saline primary effluent were proposed with structures, among which a new group of polar iodinated DBPs, iodo-trihydroxybenzenesulfonic acids, were identified and quantified. The organic precursors of this new group of DBPs were found to be 4-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid and 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene, and the formation pathways of these new DBPs were tentatively proposed. Both chlorine dose and contact time affected the formation of iodinated DBPs in the chlorinated saline wastewater effluents.
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