Daily Archives: January 5, 2015

Mr. Pachauri Issues a Non-Statement; “Predictions” are Already Occurring;

Outcomes such as those “predicted” by Mr. Pachauri are already occurring and have many causal factors. Regulating carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gasses will have no effect on stopping these outcomes from occurring. 

“Mr. Pachauri predicted there would be shortage of food and drinking water, rise in poverty and a possibility of displacement of people.” click here

Fluoride Removal Using Tea Waste Loaded with Al/Fe Oxides

Hui-meia Cai, Gui-jiea Chen, Chuan-yia Peng, Zheng-zhua Zhang, Yang-yanga Dong, Guang-zhia Shang, Xiao-huia Zhu, Hong-jianb Gao, Xiao-chuna Wan. Removal of fluoride from drinking water using tea waste loaded with Al/Fe oxides: A novel, safe and efficient biosorbent. Applied Surface Science 2015-02-15 328:34-44

A low-cost and highly efficient biosorbent was prepared by loading Al/Fe oxides onto tea waste and was tested for the ability to remove fluoride from drinking water. Key factors, including adsorbent dosage, initial fluoride concentration, contact time and initial pH of the biosorbent, were investigated. It was found that the solution pH played an important role in the removal of fluoride. The biosorbent combinations Tea–Al or Tea–Al–Fe could reduce the fluoride concentration to below 1.5mg/L in the drinking water, a level which meets the drinking water standard recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition, the residual concentrations of Al and Fe in the drinking water after Tea–Al–Fe treatment were below the standards set by WHO when treatment was conducted at pH values ranging from 5.0 to 10.0. The experimental data were analyzed using two-parameter theoretical models. The maximum fluoride adsorption capacities for the original tea, Tea–Fe, Tea–Al and Tea–Al–Fe biosorbents were 3.83, 10.47, 13.79 and 18.52mg/g, respectively. These findings demonstrate the suitability of a prepared biosorbent based on tea waste for the removal of fluoride from drinking water.

Coagulation Effects NOM, Genotoxicity, and Halogenated Furanone Precursors

Zheng Dana, Andrews RC, Andrews SA, Taylor-Edmonds L. Effects of coagulation on the removal of natural organic matter, genotoxicity, and precursors to halogenated furanones. Water Research 2015-03-01 70:118-129

Natural organic matter (NOM) in drinking water can react with disinfectants to form disinfection by-products (DBPs). Halogenated furanones are a group of emerging DBPs that can account for 20–60% of the total mutagenicity observed in drinking water. This study examined the impacts of bench-scale coagulation and subsequent chlorination on DBP formation as well as genotoxicity using three source waters located in Ontario, Canada. Two halogenated furanones 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-2(5H)-furanone (MX) and mucochloric acid (MCA) were analyzed; along with trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), and absorbable organic halides (AOX). NOM was quantified using liquid chromatography–organic carbon detection (LC–OCD). Measured MX and MCA formation was 6.9–15.3 ng/L and 43.2–315 ng/L following optimized coagulation and subsequent chlorination of the three waters tested. DBP formation and speciation were evaluated as a function of the specific NOM fractions present in the source waters. Humics, building blocks, and biopolymers were highly correlated with DBP formation. Correlations between DBPs were also investigated and a potential relationship between MCA and/or MX vs. HAAs was observed. MX was the only measured DBP that contributed to genotoxicity, representing less than 0.001% of AOX by mass but responsible for 40–67% of the genotoxic response in chlorinated Ottawa River water samples. Genotoxic potential decreased with alum dosages, signifying that coagulation was effective at removing genotoxic DBP precursors.

Click here for paper (fee).

Arsenic and Cadmium in Urban and Rural Water Supplies

Zailina H, Najibah H, Nadia Aiezzati A, Praveena SM, Patimah I. Comparison of the Health Implications on the Use of As and Cd Contaminated Water Supply between Urban and Rural Communities. BioMed Research International. 2014;2014:797603. doi: 10.1155/2014/797603.

A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in blood, urine, and drinking water as well as the health implications on 100 residents in an urban and a rural community. Results showed the blood As, urinary Cd, DNA damage, and water As and Cs were significantly (P < 0.001) higher in the rural community. Findings showed significant (P < 0.005) correlations between blood As and DNA damage with household income, years of residence, and total glasses of daily water consumption among the rural residents. The urinary NAG concentrations, years of residence, milk powder intake (glass/week), and seafood intake (per week) were significantly correlated (P < 0.005) with urinary Cd concentrations among respondents. In addition, urinary Cd level significantly influenced the urinary NAG concentrations (P < 0.001). The rural respondents experienced significantly higher lymphocyte DNA damage and blood As influenced by their years of residence and water consumption. The Cd in drinking water also resulted in the rural respondents having significantly higher urinary NAG which had a significant relationship with urinary Cd.

Click here for article (Open Access).