Daily Archives: January 6, 2015

Average Lower Tropospheric Temperature Anomaly for December 2014: +0.32 deg. C


Source: Dr. Roy Spencer

European Union Drinking Water Regulations 2014

European Union Drinking Water Regulations 2014

Council Directive 98/83/EC on the quality of water intended for human consumption.

Dynamic Model of a Submerged Membrane Bioreactor

Guilherme A. Pimentel, Alain Vande Wouwer, Jerome Harmand , Alain Rapaport. Design, analysis and validation of a simple dynamic model of a submerged membrane bioreactor Water Research 70 (2015) 97 e108

In this study, a simple dynamic model of a submerged membrane bioreactor (sMBR) is proposed, which would be suitable for process control. In order to validate the proposed model structure, informative data sets are generated using a detailed simulator built in a well-established environment, namely GPS-X. The model properties are studied, including equilibrium points, stability, and slow/fast dynamics (three different time scales). The existence of slow-fast dynamics is central to the development of a dedicated parameter estimation procedure. Finally, a nonlinear model predictive control is designed to illustrate
the potential of the developed model within a model-based control structure. The problem of water treatment in a recirculating aquaculture system is considered as an application example.

The article is here (fee).

Environmental Injury to the Kidney: Lead, Bisphenol A

James C. Chan. Review article: Environmental injury to the kidney: Interstitial nephritis Hong Kong Journal of Nephrology October 2014 16(2):23-28

The First Emperor of China (Qin Shi Huang: 259–210 BCE) would have been interested in interstitial nephritis. He might conceivably be fascinated to know that consumption of mercury elixir, instead of giving him immortality, might have shortened his life by giving him interstitial nephritis. In the Balkan region of Eastern Europe, clustering of a peculiar interstitial nephritis is prevalent. One environmental risk contributing to Balkan endemic nephritis is aristolochic acid contamination of cooking flour, drinking water, and herbal medicine. In addition, the popular use of nonprescription Chinese weight reduction herbs and public unawareness of the consequential aristolochic acid nephropathy has become a worldwide problem. Finally, the mighty Romans of antiquity lost their empire, arguably due to lead in their wine containers, lead water pipes, and lead cooking utensils. In modern times, lead paint has become universally banned, which has resulted in a reduction of lead-induced interstitial nephritis. In recent decades, bisphenol A (BPA) has been identified as a new environmental risk. BPA is in the plastic coating of food and beverage containers to prevent corrosion. BPA is so ubiquitous that urinary BPA and proteinuria are present in a high percentage of the population. BPA-induced kidney injury and other health concerns have led certain countries to ban BPA. Now, BPA-free containers are being introduced with great fanfare by manufacturers, but safety issues on all plastic products remain. It begs the question whether “plastics” of today take the place of “lead” in ancient Rome. This is a challenging question without an answer at this point.

Can Greenhouse Gases violate the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics?

The short answer is no. For the long answer, check this post at the Hockey Schtick.

“Thus, the claim that greenhouse gases may violate the 2nd law to transfer heat from their very cold radiating temperatures (ranging from -80C to -18C) to warm the much warmer Earth surface by an additional 33C is absurd and physically false. Instead, the tropospheric 33C temperature gradient [“the greenhouse effect”] above and below the center of mass of the atmosphere (at ~5100 meters altitude) is maintained by the Maxwell/Carnot/Clausius gravito-thermal “greenhouse effect,” as described in the recent series of posts, and is completely insensitive to changes in man-made CO2 levels.” click here