Daily Archives: January 12, 2015

Magnesium and Cardiovascular Disease, UK

Davies BE. The UK geochemical environment and cardiovascular diseases: magnesium in food and water. Environmental Geochemistry and Health. 2014 Dec 21.

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) contribute approximately one-third to noncommunicable diseases in the UK. The central role of magnesium in CVDs (enzyme activity, cardiac signalling, etc.) is well established. Mortality and morbidity rates for CVDs may be inversely related to water hardness, suggesting a role for environmental magnesium. Published official and quasi-official data sources were evaluated to establish a model magnesium intake for a representative adult: standardised reference individual (SRI), standardised reference male (SRM) or standardised reference female (SRF). For typical dietary constituents, only tap water is probably locally derived and bottled water may not be. Fruits and vegetables are imported from many countries, while meat, dairy and cereal products represent a composite of UK source areas. Alcoholic beverages provide magnesium, there is doubt about its absorptive efficiency, and they are not locally derived. A simple model was devised to examine the effect of varying dietary contributions to total daily intake of magnesium. Omitting tap or bottled water, the combined intake, solid food plus alcoholic beverages, is 10.57 mmol Mg (84.5 % RNI) for the SRM and for the SRF, 8.10 mmol Mg (71.7 % RNI). Consumers drinking water derived from reservoirs or rivers, or supplementing it with the purest bottled water, improve their magnesium intake only slightly compared with water containing no magnesium. Choosing bottled water with high magnesium content when the public supply derives from rivers or reservoirs partially satisfies magnesium needs. Real improvement in SRI magnesium nutrition is seen only where water is hard. However, this conclusion cannot be validated until new measurement technologies for body magnesium become available.

Click here for paper (Open Access).

Antarctic Ice Simulations Inconsistent with Observed Changes Since 1979

M.-È. Gagné, N. P. Gillett and J. C. Fyfe. Observed and simulated changes in Antarctic sea ice extent over the past 50 years. Geophysical Research Letters DOI: 10.1002/2014GL062231

Continuous monitoring of the polar regions by satellites has shown that sea ice extent (SIE) in the Antarctic has increased slightly since 1979. By contrast, climate model simulations including all major anthropogenic and natural climate influences simulate an average decrease in SIE since 1979. Here we take a longer view and assess the consistency of observed and simulated changes in Antarctic SIE using recently recovered satellite-based estimates of Antarctic SIE for September 1964 and May–July 1966, hence extending the current observational record from 35 to 50 years. While there is evidence of inconsistency between observed trends in Antarctic SIE and those simulated since 1979, particularly in models with realistic interannual variability, the observed trends since the mid-1960s fall within the 5–95% range of simulated trends. Thus, our results broadly support the hypothesis that the recent increase in Antarctic SIE is due to internal variability, though the reasons for the inconsistency in simulated and observed changes since 1979 remain to be determined.

Click here for full paper (Open Access)

California Precipitation “Normal” in December?

california precipitation

california temperatures