Daily Archives: March 6, 2015

“Convention of States” Needed to Counteract Government Lawlessness, Tyranny

“The purpose of the convention will be to rein-in a federal “leviathan” that he says has overstepped its constitutional bounds.”

“Under Article V of the U.S. Constitution, two-thirds of the state legislatures can call a convention to propose amendments to the Constitution that limit the scope and jurisdiction of the federal government.” more here

Obama AR-15 Bullet Ban Unnecessary

“A top police representative on Tuesday said that there is no history of criminals using a round popular among AR-15 rifle shooters against officers, undermining the Obama administration’s argument for banning the 5.56 M855 “lightgreen tip.” “ click here for article

Shallow Groundwater Enteropathogens in the Katmandu Valley, Nepal

Shrestha S, Haramoto E, Malla R, Nishida K Risk of diarrhoea from shallow groundwater contaminated with enteropathogens in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Journal of Water and Health. 2015 Mar;13(1):259-69. doi: 10.2166/wh.2014.036.

Shallow groundwater is the main water source among many alternatives in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, which has a rapidly growing population and intermittent piped water supply. Although human pathogens are detected in groundwater, its health effects are unclear. We estimated risk of diarrhoea from shallow groundwater use using quantitative microbial risk assessment. Escherichia coli, Giardia cyst and Cryptosporidium oocyst levels were analysed in dug and tube wells samples. E. coli concentrations were converted to those of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC). Risks from EPEC in dug wells and from Cryptosporidium and Giardia in both dug and tube wells were higher than the acceptable limit (<10(-4) infections/person-year) for both drinking and bathing exposures. Risk from protozoan enteropathogens increased the total risk 10,000 times, indicating that ignoring protozoans could lead to serious risk underestimation. Bathing exposure considerably increased risk, indicating that it is an important pathway. Point-of-use (POU) water treatment decreased the risk six-fold and decreased risk overestimation. Because removal efficiency of POU water treatment has the largest impact on total risk, increasing the coverage and efficiency of POU water treatment could be a practical risk management strategy in the Kathmandu Valley and similar settings.