Daily Archives: March 8, 2015

Caries Levels Increase with Age; Water Fluoridation Irrelevant

Eduardo Bernabé and Aubrey Sheiham.  Age, Period and Cohort Trends in Caries of Permanent Teeth in Four Developed Countries. American Journal of Public Health: July 2014, Vol. 104, No. 7, pp. e115-e121. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2014.301869

Objectives. We assessed the relative influences of age, period, and cohort effects on trends in caries experience of permanent teeth in 4 different populations.

Methods. We used data from England and Wales, United States, Japan, and Sweden in which numerous cross-sectional, nationally representative surveys have been conducted periodically since the early 1960s. For each country, trends in caries experience (measured by DMFT index—the number of decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth) were analyzed in an age, period, and cohort (APC) analysis using partial least square regression.

Results. A strong effect of age manifested in caries experience, period and cohort effects aside. Caries levels increased through to adolescence; thereafter, there was a larger increase in DMFT in adulthood. Compared with the aging effect, period and cohort effects on caries experience were small. Population DMFT scores decreased over time in all countries except Japan. Cohort effects on caries experience displayed a nonlinear pattern in all 4 countries, with slightly lower caries levels among the oldest and most recent generations.
Conclusions. Despite marked recent declines in caries among children, caries levels increase with age and remain problematic in adults.

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Household Drinking Water in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

Thomas K, McBean E, Shantz A, Murphy HM. Comparing the microbial risks associated with household drinking water supplies used in peri-urban communities of Phnom Penh, Cambodia. Journal of Water and Health. 2015 Mar;13(1):243-58. doi: 10.2166/wh.2014.214.

Most Cambodians lack access to a safe source of drinking water. Piped distribution systems are typically limited to major urban centers in Cambodia, and the remaining population relies on a variety of surface, rain, and groundwater sources. This study examines the household water supplies available to Phnom Penh’s resettled peri-urban residents through a case-study approach of two communities. A quantitative microbial risk assessment is performed to assess the level of diarrheal disease risk faced by community members due to microbial contamination of drinking water. Risk levels found in this study exceed those associated with households consuming piped water. Filtered and boiled rain and tank water stored in a kettle, bucket/cooler, bucket with spigot or a 500 mL bottle were found to provide risk levels within one order-of-magnitude to the piped water available in Phnom Penh. Two primary concerns identified are the negation of the risk reductions gained by boiling due to prevailing poor storage practices and the use of highly contaminated source water.