Enteric Bacteria in the Nile, Egypt

AbdelRahim KA, Hassanein AM, Abd El Azeiz HA. Prevalence, plasmids and antibiotic resistance correlation of enteric bacteria in different drinking water resources in sohag, egypt. Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology. 2015 Jan 23;8(1):e18648. doi: 10.5812/jjm.18648.

BACKGROUND: One of the major health causing problems is contamination of drinking water sources with human pathogenic bacteria. Enteric bacteria such as Shigella, Salmonella and Escherichia coli are most enteric bacteria causing serious health problems. Occurrence of such bacteria infection, which may resist antibiotics, increases the seriousness of problem.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of some enteric bacteria (Shigella, Salmonella and E. coli) in addition to Pseudomonas. The antibiotic susceptibility of these bacteria was also tested, in addition to assessing plasmid(s) roles in supposed resistance. MRSA genes in non-staphylococci were clarified.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Water samples were collected from different drinking sources (Nile, ground water) and treated tap water. Selective media were used to isolate enteric bacteria and Pseudomonas. These bacteria were identified, counted and examined for its susceptibility against 10 antibiotics. The plasmids were screened in these strains. MRSA genes were also examined using PCR.

RESULTS: Thirty-two bacterial strains were isolated from Nile and ground water and identified as S. flexneri, S. sonnei, S. serovar Newport, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and E. coli strains according to standard methods. According to antibiotic susceptibility test, 81% of strains were resistant to Cefepime, whereas 93.75% were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin. Correlation analysis between plasmids profiles and antibiotics sensitivities showed that 50% of the total strains had plasmids. These strains showed resistance to 50% of the used antibiotics (as average value); whereas, the plasmids free strains (50%) were resistant to 48.7% of the antibiotics. No distinct correlation between plasmids and antibiotic resistance in some strains could be concluded in this study. No MRSA gene was detected among these non-staphylococci strains. No bacteria were isolated from treated tap water.

CONCLUSIONS: Thirty-three bacterial strains; 10 strains of E. coli, 10 strains of S. flexneri, 3 strains S. sonnei, 2 strains of S. serovar Newport, and 7 strains of P. aeruginosa, were isolated and identified from Nile water and ground water in Sohag governorate. The prevalence of enteric bacteria in water sources in studying area was considerable. No clear or distinct correlation could be concluded between plasmids and antibiotic resistance. No MRSA gene was detected in these non-staphylococci strains, and no pathogenic bacteria were isolated from treated tap water. The hygiene procedures in the studying area seem to be adequate, despite the failure to maintain water sources form sewage pollution.

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