Daily Archives: March 24, 2015

What Happens When Government Dogmatically Controls Science; Bureaucrats Make Innocent People Suffer

“The Federal Emergency Management Agency is making it tougher for governors to deny man-made climate change. Starting next year, the agency will approve disaster preparedness funds only for states whose governors approve hazard mitigation plans that address climate change.” here for more

Mr. Jerry Brown, it’s the California State Budget that is Immoral

There’s a saying that when you point your finger at another person, there are several on the same hand pointing back at you. Well this is certainly the case with Mr. Jerry Brown’s comment on “climate change.”

The global climate is a dynamic system that is always changing and adjusting. There simply is no “steady state” condition from which it changes. Climate changes happen.

“Gov. Jerry Brown said opposition to steps President Barack Obama is taking on climate change “borders on the immoral,” as he tore into Republicans in an interview aired Sunday on NBC’s “Meet the Press.” ” click here

Fouling and Cleaning of Ultrafiltration Membranes

Xiafu Shi, Galit Tal, Nicholas P. Hankins, Vitaly Gitis. Fouling and cleaning of ultrafiltration membranes: A review Journal of Water Process Engineering
Volume 1, April 2014, Pages 121–138

Ultrafiltration (UF) is one of the best options for both one-stage and as part of multi-stage water and wastewater purification. This review summarises the known facts about the fouling processes and cleaning procedures and details of the most successful physical and chemical cleaning combinations. The optimum cleaning is closely linked to the nature of the fouling. Precise knowledge of both the fouling type (organic, inorganic, or biological) and the fouling mechanism (gel formation, adsorption, deposition, pore blockage, or cake formation) is the key to success in UF membrane cleaning.

Paper is here (Open Access).

Relation Between Urine Fluoride and Dental Fluorosis

Jarquín-Yañez L, Mejía-Saavedra Jde J, Molina-Frechero N, Gaona E, Rocha-Amador DO, López-Guzmán OD, Bologna-Molina R. Association between Urine Fluoride and Dental Fluorosis as a Toxicity Factor in a Rural Community in the State of San Luis Potosi. TheScientificWorldJournal 2015;2015:647184. doi: 10.1155/2015/647184.

Objective. The aim of this study is to investigate urine fluoride concentration as a toxicity factor in a rural community in the state of San Luis Potosi, Mexico.

Materials and Methods. A sample of 111 children exposed to high concentrations of fluoride in drinking water (4.13 mg/L) was evaluated. Fluoride exposure was determined by measuring urine fluoride concentration using the potentiometric method with an ion selective electrode. The diagnosis of dental fluorosis was performed by clinical examination, and the severity of damage was determined using Dean’s index and the Thylstrup-Fejerskov (TF) index.

Results. The range of exposure in the study population, evaluated through the fluoride content in urine, was 1.1 to 5.9 mg/L, with a mean of 3.14 ± 1.09 mg/L. Dental fluorosis was present in all subjects, of which 95% had severe cases. Higher urine fluoride levels and greater degrees of severity occurred in older children.

Conclusions. The results show that dental fluorosis was determined by the presence of fluoride exposure finding a high positive correlation between the severity of fluorosis and urine fluoride concentration and the years of exposure suggested a cumulative effect.

Click here for paper (Open Access).